GEOLOGY OF AMA-EKPU EDDA AND ENVIRONS, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Ama-Ekpu Edda lies within the Afikpo-Basin, a sedimentary basin set up during the late cretaceous period following the santonian uplift in the southern Benue trough. From the the field study, the Local stratigraphy shows that the lithologic succession consists of black to dark grey shales and sandstone ridges.  The sandstones ridge consist of fine to coarse grain that is finining upward.  Palynological analysis from the shale samples collected from the surface outcrops in the area yielded a total of 210 palynomorphs, made of 9 pollen species, 5 spore species. The abundance of the pollen species of Longaperites sp, Monosulcites sp, and monocolpites margiriatus, the spore species of cyathides minor, Laerigatosporites sp, along with the dinoflagellate cysts species of leoisphaerida sp, Andallusiclla sp, and senegalium sp, and especially a high abundance of the foraminifera species Bolivina Anambra, suggest a nearly late Campanian to Early  Maastrichtian age for the sediments. Based on the distribution of the palynomorph species recovered from the shale samples, the study area has been interpreted as an open marginal marine to estuarine environment at the time of sediment deposition occurring during a period of marine incursion. Hydrogeological investigation of the surface water collected at  ufueseni River shows the presence of coliform which probably results from feacal deposits washed down the river through erosion.

Keywords: Shale, Biostratigraphy, Palynology, Palynomorphs.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

The study area Ama-ekpu Edda and its environs comprises of villages in Afikpo South Local Government of Ebonyi State. Communities within the studied area include; Achara, Amancho, Amangwu, Asaga, Amoba, Okpocha, Ekoli, Ebunwana, Ugwufiere, Ufueseni, Owutu, Ekeje, Letu, and Nguzu-Edda. This project work tends to evaluate the fundamental factors influencing the properties of cohesive soils within the study. These cohesive soils were largely found in Ama-ekpu Edda and nearby villages around. The study area, Ama-ekpu Edda, lies entirely in the Afikpo Sub-Basin, a depression set up subsequently with the Anambra Basin after the epierogenic event which folded and uplifted the Albian-Cenomanian sediments into the Abakiliki Anticlinorium. The Afikpo Sub-Basin is a coeval basin with the Anambra basin, both lying unconformably on the Santonian sediments of the Benue Trough, even though recent studies have revealed that pre-Santonian sediments occur within the basin. Sediments making up this basin include those deposited in the second depositional cycle from the Campanian to Maastrichtian. The study area is underlain entirely by the Nkporo formation, the basal lithostratigraphic unit of the Afikpo Sub-Basin. This formation as observed in the study area comprises of grey to black coloured fine-medium sandstone lenses. The shale underlying the study area has high organic content and gypsum. The gypsum occurring in the sediments are diagenetic minerals occurring as scattered streaks in the beds. It has been acclaimed for its highly fossiliferous nature of the shale, this work incorporates data from both palynological biostratigraphy and the more conventional foraminifera biostratigraphy, as tools in acquiring the age and depositional history of the sediments, providing thus, unbiased information. The lithological and microfaunal association of the Nkporo formation suggests a restricted shallow marine environment. A normal marine origin has however been suggested for the Asaga-Amangwu shale based on palynological evidences as obtained from palynological analysis, as well as a marginal to marine for the Nkporo formation, assigned a Maastrichtian age for the sediments of this formation based on mollusces and fish teeth from Asaga-Amangwu and Nkporo village suggesting an early Maastrichtian age for the sediments following an integrated study of foraminifera and palynomorphs; whereas, a late Campanian age was assigned to these sediments in from palynological analysis alone. While much of these works were obtained from regional studies, this work studies particularly the microfaunal association of the study area.

1.1 Aims and Objectives

  • To make a detailed description of the different rock types encountered.
  • To study the Geology and fossil analysis of Ama-ekpu Edda and use it to determine the age relationship between the lithologies encountered in the environment of deposition.
  • To make a detailed study of the economic minerals potential of the area.
  • To discuss the geology of the area, the lithofacies units, interpret and analyze the fossil assemblage encountered in the study area, and interpret the depositional environment.
  • Constructing a geologic map of the study area.

1.1.2Significance of the Study

Why we went to the field is to add or support the knowledge to the existing knowledge of the area.

3. Location, Extent and Accessibilty

The study area Ama-Ekpu Edda is located at Afikpo south local Government Area of Ebonyi state in south Eastern Nigeria. The extent of study or mapped area is bounded on the North and south by latitudes 5º50’N and 5º55’N of the equator and on west and east by longitudes 7º50’E and 7º55’E of the Greenwich Meridian respectively Fig.1 is the accessibility map of the study area.

GEOLOGY OF AMA-EKPU EDDA AND ENVIRONS, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN OBVIATING SUICIDE IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors. Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress, such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts. Close to 800 000 people die due to suicide every year, which is one person every 40 seconds. Suicide is a global phenomenon and occurs throughout the lifespan. Effective and evidence-based interventions can be implemented at population, sub-population and individual levels to prevent suicide and suicide attempts. There are indications that for each adult who died by suicide there may have been more than 20 others attempting suicide. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan and is the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year old globally.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), while the link between suicide and mental disorders (in particular, depression and alcohol use disorders) is well established in high-income countries, many suicides happen impulsively in moments of crisis with a breakdown in the ability to deal with life stresses, such as financial problems, relationship break-up or chronic pain and illness. In addition, experiencing conflict, disaster, violence, abuse, or loss and a sense of isolation are strongly associated with suicidal behaviour. Suicide rates are also high amongst vulnerable groups who experience discrimination, such as refugees and migrants; indigenous peoples; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) persons; and prisoners. By far the strongest risk factor for suicide is a previous suicide attempt. It is estimated that around 20 per cent of global suicides are due to pesticide self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries. Other common methods of suicide are hanging and firearms. However, In any learning institution, counselors form an essential part of the organization since they serve as key persons to whom students can turn to for help on matters related to general challenges facing a teenager both in school and out of school. With the too academic oriented education system characterized with exam cheating and results irregularities, students are likely to find themselves faced with difficult decisions to make concerning career choices. Pressure from parents, lack of proper guidance and scarcity of jobs in preferred sectors can be quite overwhelming for a child unless guided appropriately. Apart from career choice, the students are also faced with other adolescent challenges such as relationships, rapid growth and physical changes, peer pressure, addiction to drugs and alcohol, and the need for identity or to “belong”. therefore, the guidance and counselling role can be useful in ameliorating the increase of suicide in our tertiary institutions.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The year 2019 has recorded a significant number of death through suicidal actions. The trend is one that cannot be quickly disputed as it is ongoing. The demeaning aspect of suicide attempt in the contemporary Nigeria is that it is carried out by youths. The youths are supposed to be the least affected by suicide but reverse is the case. In the tertiary institutions, the rate of suicide actions is on the increase as records show that nothing has been done to curb this action. Suicide is associated with a lot of negativity as it traditionally depicts a bad omen and signifies weakness on the part of the victim. The continuous increase of suicide by young people has propelled this study to be considered as it examines the role of guidance and counseling in curbing suicide.

1. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in the Nigeria Tertiary institutions. Specifically the study will focus on:

1. To determine the cause of suicide in Tertiary institutions.

2. To determine the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in the Nigeria Tertiary institutions.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study seeks to provide answers to the following research questions:

1. What are the causes of suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions?

2. What is the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The study formulated and developed for testing the following Null hypotheses:

H0: There are no identifiable causes of suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions.

H0²: Guidance and Counseling do not play any significant role in obviating suicide in Nigeria Tertiary institutions.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Nigeria has witnessed an unusual phenomenon among young people especially young people in the tertiary institutions. This study is quite significant as it exposes in factual terms the causes of suicide among young people. The study will also assist guidance and counseling department in understanding what needs to be tackled as it provides insight the need to obviate suicide. The reverse is that this study brings to bare the role of guidance and counseling in obviating suicide,which implies that guidance and counseling can be relied upon to provide assistance to suicidal issues.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study examines the current appalling trend of suicide in Nigeria, especially in the tertiary institutions. However the study is limited to only Nigeria institutions. The study sampled opinions from respondents across four states (Enugu, Lagos, Jos and Delta states).

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research is organized into five distinct but related chapters, the first chapter gives an overview of the study as well as highlighting the problem and clearly the objectives. In the second chapter, we reviewed related and relevant literature. In the third chapter, we describe the method adopted and employed in the study. The fourth chapter presents and analyzes the data collected from the respondents, while the fifth chapter includes, summary, conclusion and recommendations.

THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN OBVIATING SUICIDE IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCT AND SERVICES

ABSTRACT

This study on the impact of promotion of the marketing of new services with particular note on Globa-com Plc Enugu was carried out some of the following objective.

1.           To determine the Impact of promotional strategies in Creating consumers awareness of Globa –Com

2.           To determine the Impact of promotional strategies on customers patronage of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.  For additional information extensive literature review was conducted, researcher reviewed text books, journals magazines and News papers that are related to this study.  In order o achieve thus objective three set if questionnaire were prepare and administered to a population comparison staff/management distributors and customers of Globa-Com Plc within Enugu Metropolis.  The sample size of the study was determined using Topman’s formula to determine the sample size for customers, while censuses were used or the relevant staff management.

The data collected were presented on statistical table, analyzed and interpreted.

The hypothesis were tested using chi-square based on the analysis he following finding were made that the personal selling strategy has much impact on customers disposition and patronage.  That Globa-com Plc have not fully designed an optimal combinations of promo-tools to enhance their performances.

The researcher wants the coverage of GSM facilities to extent to more areas, particularly the towns and village to engender wider communication in the country.

The researcher recommended that the capacity of Globa-Com should be up grade urgently to enable it support efficient service of GSM in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Establishment of business including communication services requires that the firms make key decision.  These decision affects the total marketing programmes of the firm, simple put the marketing strategy.  However one vital area of such decision which demands proper attention is the communication strategy.

Communication industry must initiate promotional polices and programmes to inform, persuade and educate its target audience of the existence of the organization and their products.

Although creation of demand of a firm product may be the ultimate objectives of a company’s marketing promotion, this objective  is never achieved at one full swoop.  The firm must put in place a set of activities aimed at stimulating demand for their products.

This may involve determining the optional combinations of the promotional Mix, advertising sales promotions, personal selling, publicity, public relation Direct marketing and packaging to achieve its promotional   objectives.   This optional lend is a function of the promotional resources nature of the product, just to mention but a few.

Adirika, Ebue, and Nnolim (1996: 35) see promotion as the component used by the organization to inform, educate and persuade the market regarding the company’s offerings.  Advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and public relations are the major variables of promotion.

Promotion is a vital ingredient of survival and development, without adequate promotion products may not sell, when they their continuity is in doubt.  The art and science of marketing promotion, which comprises advertising personal selling sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing is often associated with glamour and flamboyance. Infact most of the budget of some companies is spent on promotions because of the need of survive in the competitive marketing environment.

Edoga and Ani (2000:243) noted that marketing success does not, just depend on good product, good price and efficient distribution. It is also vital that organization communicates its, so offerings to that advertising, personal selling  sale promotions public relations, publicity and direct marketing can be used to inform prospective buyers about the benefit of their products persuade then to try and remind them later about the benefits they will desire by using the product.

Modern marketing companies are increasingly recognizing the value of an effective communication and promotion programme for their entire public including G.S.M Global communication.

Ebue noted that modern marketing does not shop at developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making it really available to target customers. The company must communicate to its target audience, tell good stories, disseminate information about the products existence, feature terms and benefits to the target market.

Coppo. J. 91992: 201) confirms that the promotional tools serve as supreme vehicles in competition and provide the only way a market nicher can, hope to penetrate on established market. He went further to state hat for a company to excel above others in the competitive market such a company must value the importance of promotion.

Global-Com is one of the G.S.M service providers in Enugu. The company, has its branch of at Ebeano Estates,  since its inection about two years ago. The company has been doing very well. But Global –Com as at now is facing a lot competition from other G.S.M service providers like dropped as a result of this competition form other G.S.M service providers like dropped as a result of this competition, it is necessary for Global-com to appraise its promotional strategies in order to fight competition in the marketing x-rays.

It is the in light of this that the research the promotional on the marketing if new product in Enugu Metropolis.  A Case study of Global –Com.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Inadequate sale are often given by entrepreneur as major causes of their failure.  A careful review of their circumstance often reveals abysmal ignorance of the need for promotional skill or deliberate neglect of the necessity for co-ordained promotional strategies.

Quite often marketers are very optimistic about sales (patroage0 they conceive the wrong motion that their will sell themselves, forgetting that even the best product /service still need to be stimulated in order to more out of the store.  Global –com with its newness in Enugu metropolis need to effectively promote its product because it is new and there is high competition in the market, Infact, the creation of effective promotional strategies is an essential more towards creating a market.

The above statement applies equally to Global-Com services.  Despite the numbers advantages inherent in effective promotion, The availability of promotional facilities, the need to use promotional to fight competition in this industry, the use of co-ordinated effective promotional tools in Global –Com operation is barely evident and is negatively impacting on their operation.  It is in the light of the importance attached to promotion, that the researcher seems to find out the best promotional activities that could be used by GSM operators like global-Com for improved performance in Enugu Metropolis.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.         To determine the effectiveness of promotion on sales of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.

2.         To determine customers patronage of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.

3.         To determine the Impact of promotional strategies in Creating consumers awareness of global com in Enugu Metropolis.

4.         To determine the impact of promotional strategies on customers patronage of Global Com in Enugu Metropolis.

5.         To appraise he promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu Metropolis for increased profitability.

1.4       FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

1.        Ho:  Promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu Metropolis do not create consumers awareness of their services.

Hi:  Promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu metropolis create consumers awareness of their  services.

2.        Ho:  Promotional activities of globacom does not encourage customers patronage.

Hi:  Promotional activities of globacom encourage customers patronage.

3.        Ho:  Promotional activities of Globa Com do not lead to increased sales volume of the G.S.M services.

Hi:  Promotional activities of Globacom leads to increased sales volume of the G.S.M services

4.   Ho:   The promotional actives of Globa-Com do not lead
        to increase profit of the organisation

Hi  The promotional activities of Globa-Com lead to increase profit for the organisation.

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study concentrated on Impact of promotion in the marketing of News Product.

        However, in view of limited time and resources emphasis was placed on globacom activities without Enugu metropolis.

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study is not a more academic exercise it holds immense benefits, it will be of significance to the following

Firstly marketing firs and globacom  will gain immensely from then study as it will explore the impact of promotions on the performance of their operations and suggest ore success-oriented ways of enhancing the promotional impact.

        Secondly, operators of G.S.M serviced will; gain immensely form the study.  This is because it will not only measure the effectiveness of each of the promotional mix variable on the performance of G.S.M services but also recommendations or measures to be taken in design and determing the right combinations of the promotion  in a more result oriented manner will be made.

        Finally, about the researcher and the reader will benefit from the study as the information contained would wider their scope of understanding and knowledge in the area of study which will stir up further investigations.

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.          Promotional Strategy – it is controlled integrated programme of communication method and materials designed presents a company and it products to prospective customers (Adirika Ebue Nnolim)

2.          Advantaging – is a group of activities aiming at an including dissemination of information in any paid non –personal form concerning an idea product or service to compare actions in accordance with the import and an identifiable sponsor.

3.          Sales promotion  –  public relation the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual under between an organization and its public (Edoga and Ani)

4.          Direct Marketing – it is an interaction marketing system that use one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response.

5.          Personal selling – face to face interaction with one or more prospective purchase for the purpose of making presentation ensuring questions and producing orders.

6.          Public relations publicity –  A variety of programmes designed to promotion or protect a companies Image or if Individual product (Kotler (1991: 657).

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCT AND SERVICES

GEOLOGY OF OZIZZA AND ENVIRONS, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Cretaceous sediments outcropped extensively in the Afikpo sedimentary basins. Detailed geological mapping of Ozizza and environs was undertaken in order to give a detail descriptions of the lithological features, stratigraphic relationships and contacts, sedimentary structures, and their paleontological contents. Sieve analysis, hydrological and palynological analyses of selected outcrop samples were carried out in order to reconstruct the depositional history of the sediments in the area and their provenance, assess the age of sediments and establish their paleoenvironments of deposition, and evaluate the hydrocarbon source rock potential and the degree of thermal maturation. Two main lithological units were encountered, which include sandstone and shale. Result from thesieve analysis indicates that the sandstones in the study areawere mostly deposited in a beach and fluvial settings. Physicochemical results from heavy metals analysis indicated significant concentration of sodium (Na) in the water samples. Results from the palynological investigation revealed a Late Campanian to Earliest Maastrichtian for the sediments, with the following index sporomorphs assemblage:Cingulatisporites ornatus, Zlivisporis blanensis, Distaverrusporites simplex, Longapertites marginatus, Constructipollenites ineffectus, Monocolpites marginatus, Echitriporites trianguliformis,, Buttinia andreevi, and Retidiporites magdalenensis. Environmentally significant palynomorphs indicated that the sediments in the study area were depositedin a marginal marine/ nearshore brackishwater environments of deposition, with minor marine influence. Kerogen analysis shows that all the sediments were mostly dominated by phytoclasts followed by opaque debris and AOM, giving rise to mostly type III kerogen, which are generally immature but have potential to generate gas.

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1   LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY

The study area is located along Afikpo-Okigwe axis and bounded by latitudes 5° 51IN and 6°03IN and longitudes 007º51IE and 8° 06E (Fig. 1), and with an area extent of about 74 sqkm (Fig. 1). The study area is bounded on the north by Afikpo, on the south by Eberiba and on the west by Amasiri town.It covers area such as, Anofia Nkanu, Amangbala and Ebom in Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria. Access to the area is through the roughly east-west Afikpo-Okigwe road, which connects the Okposi-Amaseri-Amoso road at Amasiri. On the outskirts of Afikpo town, this road connects with the Northbound Abakaliki road passing through Akpoha and Abomege. The eastern side of the study area is accessible through the Abomege-Ugep road, which passes through the Cross River at Itigidi to Ugep and Calabar towards the southern part of the study area. Other minor roads link the smaller interior villages from these major roads.  The major roads are tarred while the minor roads are untarred and may not be accessible during the rainy season.    

1.2 GEOGRAPHY

1.2.1 CLIMATE

The study area experiences two seasons, the rainy and dry seasons. There is however, a short break of one to three times, usually referred to as “August break”. The hottest months are usually between October and March.

Rainfall in this area is evenly distributed and is high, about 190 cm per annum, and 95 % of this takes place between the months of April and October (Ibe and Okeke, 1974). The rate of evaporation from the open surface water as estimated by Mirenenko (1966) is 2cm per annum.

Fig. 1: Location and accessibility map showing the drainage system of study area.

The mapped area falls within the zone of 27o-30o of annual temperature. The climate of this area is classified as a tropical wet and dry savannah

GEOLOGY OF OZIZZA AND ENVIRONS, EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL CORPORATE COMMUNICATION ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION

ABSTRACT

The focus of internal corporate communication is gaining interest, particularly because it is very essential in all dimensions of the organization’s performance. Hence, effective communication has been linked to a number of positive outcomes like organizational success, financially and socially, higher levels of cooperation and employee job satisfaction while ineffective communication may lead to dissatisfaction, misunderstandings, lack of information, lower performances and more employee rotations. The inability of managers to effectively communicate with their employees leads to employee job dissatisfaction and poor performance. Hence, this study examines how internal corporate communication influences employees job satisfaction in selected organizations under study.

The survey method was adopted to gather data; 296 copies of the questionnaire were administered on junior and senior personnel of the selected organizations under study while in-depth interview was conducted with selected management level personnel. Data were collected and analyzed in simple frequency tables and the responses were represented in frequency tables as percentages of the overall sample. Also the Pearson chi-square was employed to determine the relationship between variables for any significance.

Findings from the study show that the channels of internal corporate communication operational in the selected organizations are: face-to-face discussions, e-mails, intercom units, intranet, reports, messengers, memos, newsletters, official letters, bulletin boards, departmental/management meetings, group/team discussions, in-house training sessions, management/employee briefing sessions, labor union meetings, suggestion boxes, notices, closed unit groups (CUGs), and assemblies.

Further findings reveal that most of the employees perceive internal corporate communication in their organizations as very effective, positive and a necessary organizational tool for employee job satisfaction. Findings reveal a significant relationship between internal corporate communication and employee job satisfaction which further enhances employee job performance. Further findings from the study also reveal that organizations are faced with diverse internal communication challenges such as: distorted feedback, matching message content with appropriate packaging, inadequate information, uneven flow of information, messages with lack of clarity of purpose, inability to arrive at a homogeneous internal communication approach and complete communication breakdown. These challenges, when not properly tackled, can hinder many organizational processes, especially its efforts at achieving employee job satisfaction/performance and, ultimately, organizational success.

Internal corporate communication plays a major role in influencing employee job satisfaction which significantly influences employee job performance hence; organizations that want to successfully retain a satisfied workforce must be willing to employ a communication style that is more participative and employee-supportive.

INFLUENCE OF INTERNAL CORPORATE COMMUNICATION ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION

THE GEOLOGY OF AMANGUWU AND ENVIRONS

ABSTRACT

The Main objective of this work is to study the geology and carry out the facies analysis of the Cretaceous Sediments of AFikpo at Ebonyi state and produce a geologic map of the study area. The work was done in the field making observations, taking measurements using the GPS, Compass, hammer etc, and taking down recordings, Laboratory analysis were also carried out on the samples from the field, Bivariate And Univariate analysis were done on the samples. The results from this analysis helped us decipher the facies found in the area which includes; Mudstone facies, Sandstone Facies which include; laminated Sandstone Facies, Biourturbated Sandstone Facies, Massive Sandstone Facies, Meandering River Sandstone Facies and Environments of depositions which incudes; possible dominant Marine Environment, Fluvial, Beach Environment. From the study this has pointed out that this area is dominantly a Marine, Beach, and from previous works carried out fluvial Environment. From previous works carried out I agree to the that fact that the area is a Marine, and Fluvial Environment and I want to also decipher from the result of the Bivariate analysis carried out that it is a possible predominantly Beach Environment, and from observations of field structures such as Biogenic structures e.g. skolithos that it is a predominant Marine environment

CHAPTER ONE (Introduction)

1.1 Background Information

Geology is an applied course that has been designed to enlighten and expose students to the procedures of practical field geologic mapping. This involves the study and practical significances of the study of outcrops on rocks in a study area to deduce important information. Research on the study of sedimentary rocks have shown that sediments, pieces and fragments of sedimentary old and pre-existing rocks have created some features and rock attributes which are especially distinct and useful in the sedimentary terrain. This concept makes up about 80%-90% of mineral products that are being utilized in our day to day living and up building. Product of sedimentary rocks which have been a major commodity which has sustained living economics of major developed or developing nations and detailed study on its further use and maintenance is necessary so as not only to develop new uses but also to preserve products of sedimentary rocks for future generations.Thus the field work at Afikpo provided a better practical understanding of the Geology of the area which involves its Geomorphology, regional/structural Geology, Hydrogeology, Economic Geology, Sedimentary facies of the area.

In the course of this research we would be looking at the facies analysis of the cretaceous sediments of Afikpo,facies deals with the chemical and biological aspects of sedimentary beds of the same geologic age. Sedimentary facies is defined as a mass of rock which can be defined and distinguished from others by its geometry, lithology,sedimentary structures, paleocurrent pattern and fossils. Facies analysis is done to construct a geologic model that describes an ancient sedimentary environment and this agrees with Ly’ells doctrine of uniformitarianism which means that (the presence is the key to the past) i.e. modern equivalences are used as analogs of ancient environment. In industries that exploit earth resources such as fossil fuels, facies analysis is very important in research apart from examination of rock specimens, this kind of analysis may also rely heavily upon the geophysical properties of the rock such as density, radioactive electrical and even magnetic properties of the rocks but for the cause of this research we would be using just examinations of rock specimen, biological and geological structures to analyze our facies.

1.2OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF STUDY

The major objective of this field work is to:

  • To study the facies of the area using lithological, physical characteristics and laboratory analysis
  • To create a geologic map that gives a detailed structural and lithological description

 1.3 LOCATION AND EXTENT

Afikpo and its environs is in Ebonyi State and is located geographically in the South-eastern part of Nigeria within the co-ordinate of latitude 5053’N and 5055’N, and longitude 7054’E and 7057’N. Afikpo is bounded by Owututu to the South, Abba-Omega to the North, Oso to the West, Nko (Cross River) to the East. Afikpo lies at an elevation of about 170m above sea level.

1.4 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE AREA

1.4.1ACCESSSIBILTY

The primary access was through either the Amasiri-Akaeze road or the Abakiliki-Afikpo express road. Other accesses to the field area mapped are through minor roads and footpaths linking the various towns and communities around the area.

1.4.2 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE AREA:

 Geomorphologically, the study area is undulating, composed of alternating highlands and lowlands with some of the low lands being occupied by surface water bodies.

The highlands are mainly the ridges and hills which are made up mainly of sandstone lithology, minor siltstones/mudstones and claystones which serve as cementing material that bind the quartz grains. Shales and then some siltstones usually underlie the lower areas. On a regional scale, Afikpo is a trough or sub-basin but in terms of local topography is commonly undulating.

THE GEOLOGY OF AMANGUWU AND ENVIRONS

GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CLASTIC SEDIMENTS AT OZARA UKWU AND ITS ENVIRONS, IN THE SOUTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Ozara Ukwu and its environs (the study Area) is located within the Abakaliki Basin and the Afikpo sub Basin, respectively within the Afikpo Area. Detailed geologic mapping was carried out in other todetermine the various stratigraphic lithologic units, depositional environment, provenance, age and kerogene characterization, respectively using the basic field and laboratory procedures. Based on field observations, two lithostratigraphic units of the Ezeaku Group and Nkporo Group were identified based on the various diagnostic tools such as, dip of beds and microfossil assemblages. The older Ezeaku group sediments is made up of the basal older Unit of the map area consisting of alternative sequence of indurated fissile shale, calcareous rock (limestone?) and medium to coarse grained, poorly sorted, positively to near symmetrical, leptokurtic sandstone lithofacies, respectively, representing the Amasiri sandstone. It is overlain by narrowindurated Amasiri shale and the Ozara Ukwu sandstone facies respectively. The Ozara Ukwu sandstone unit is made alternating sequence of indurated gray shale, and medium to coarse grained, poorly sorted, positively to near symmetrical leptokurtic cross bedded sandstone lithofacies. These sediments of the Ezeaku group are highly indurated, jointed, and highly dipping in the southeast direction with maximum angle of about 500, probably suggesting influence of tectonism that affected the group during the Santonian times. laboratory evidence suggest that depositional environment probably estuarine environment..The younger nkporo shale sediment represented by late campanian in age following results from an outcrop from the map area..This unit represented by dark fissile shale located at the Amangu area. Also, the presence of gastropods (Turittela species)is an indication and confirmation that the sediments were deposited in a marginal marine environment. The paleoenvironmental inference therefore, is that the Amasiri sandstone, the Ozara ukwu sandstons and the nkporo formation were deposited in environments varying from marginal marine to normal marine. Therefore the map area has provided a diagnostic evidence  of the various  depositional environment within the southeastern basins of the Lower Benue Trough.

CHAPTER ONE

 1.1 INTRODUCTION

The area of study is in the northeastern border of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The scope area of work covers geological mapping and aspects of geology like: lithology,sedimentology, stratigraphy, [biostratigraphy], and geomorphology, production of geological map, structural geology, and environmental analysis of samples collected from the study area. In the Southern Benue Trough, the nature of most of the units and the dense vegetation as a result of a wet tropical climate have hindered field studies and created a missing link in the proper explanation of the depositional and provenance framework of the basin. The Afikpo area offers a unique opportunity to study and understand the depositional and provenance processes in the southern Benue Trough as the highly indurated nature of the sediments allow for an abundance of outcrops that is unmatched anywhere else in the region. The fundamental bjectives of this field work is to give detailed description of the geology of Ozara Ukwu and its environs which can be used in interpretation and delineating the depositional environment, areas of environmental hazards and minerals of economic importance in the study area.

1.0 BACKGROUND STUDY

The Benue trough is thought to be as a collection of pull-apart basins, related to transcurrent or strike-slip movement along deep-seated basement shear zones of Pan African origin, reactivated as oceanic transform faults (Benkhelil, 1982 and 1989, Guiraud, 1993).This view is supported by field evidence in the northern Benue Trough where the climate and the nature of the sedimentary units allow for classic geologic study. Geological and geophysical studies have enabled a broad understanding of the geology of the Benue Trough. It was only in the latter part of the 20thcentury that the structural framework, within the Benue Trough was largely resolved. The Ozara Ukwu area offers a unique opportunity to study and understand the depositional processes, and Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Southern Benue Trough. Being highly indurated, the sediments allow for an abundance of outcrops which were studied in details. However, the dense vegetation of the area, which was as a result of wet tropical climate, hindered field studies and created a missing link in the proper explanation of the structural framework of the basin, (Okonkwo, 2014).

 1.1Geographical setting

The study area, Ozara Ukwu and its environs, is located at the northeastern border of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It lies within latitude of 05055’N and 05050’N and longitude of 07055’E and 07050’E. Notable towns that situates within the study area include, to the West is Amaseri town, to the south is Amangwu, and Owutu communities, respectively,  etc.

1.1.1       Accessibility

The study area, Ozara Okwu is accessible through road network from Abakaliki–Afikpo road, Afikpo–Okigwe road, Amasiri–Edda road, Unwana road, Ndibe and some outcrops are trekable few meters into the bush and others are along river channels. The main access road to Afikpo area is the Okigwe – Afikpo road and Abakaliki – Afikpo road.

GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF CLASTIC SEDIMENTS AT OZARA UKWU AND ITS ENVIRONS, IN THE SOUTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA

AN INDEPTH STUDY OF ON THE BRAND SWITCHING BEHAVIOR OF MALT DRINK CONSUMER

ABSTRACT

This research work is “An Indept study on the Brand Switching Behavour of Malta Drink Consumers”  This study tends to establish the impact of the marketing mix on the brand switching behavour of malta drinks, determine.  The factors that promote brand switching among malta drinks consumers and discover the relative strengths of the various brands enerated for this study with the selected areas.  Based in the objectives of the study two hypothesis were formulated.  The population of the study were drawn from the consumers and retailers of malta drinks in Engu.  Bourleys formular was employed to determine the simple size.   Questionnaire were used to elicit data respondents simple tables and percentages were used to analyzed data.  Based on the analysis availability or unavailability of malt drink brand and desire for now experience to taste something different.  Therefore, manufacturers should embark on an expensive and critical in house assessment of their distributional strength because there is a significant relationship between price changes or difference in malta drink brands and consumers brand switching.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Brand switching is the consumers decision to purchase a product of a brand different from that previously or usually purchase.  Brand switching is when a consumer or group of consumers switches their allegiance from one brand of a certain type of product to another.  This brand switching may be temporary, or it may be long lasting.

        Sometimes known as brand jumping, brand switching is the process of choosing to switch from routine use of an product or brand to steady usage of a different but similar product.

        Brand switching is the most common with products that have no great perceived variation in quality across brands such as bottled water, dairy products, or paper towels etc.  Brand switching takes place most commonly by price promotions, in-store displays, superior availability, perceived improvements or innovations in competitive brands, desire for novelty, number fo available brands, perceived risk, frequency of purchase, changes in quality, or level of satisfaction with the most recent purchase.

        It is possible to research when consumer in a marketplace determine their attitude to brands and their likehood to switch from a brand they are using at the moment, and in particular to which other brand the might switch.  This allows the building of a picture of likely brand switching behavour.  If consumers propensity to switch is known, the market can be modeled to indicate future market share.  Such modeling could also indicate the relative positioning of the competing brands.

The chartered institute of marketing (1984) in England defines marketing as “ the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirement profitable.

American marketing association (1960:1) also defined marketing as “the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services to the consumers or users. In other words, all activities that are undertaken to facilitate the flow of goods and services come under marketing. According to Nwaizuggo (2004:8) modern marketing concept is built on three foundation namely:

(i)          Consumer satisfaction

(ii)         Profitable sales volume

(iii)        Integrated marketing

This means that consumers satisfaction must be at the centre of any business motive.   The central aim of  modern  marketing   is  all  about  ensuring the  consumer satisfaction  and  also  to ensure  that  consumers  always  continue  to  patronize  the  marketer’s   brand. 

The  American   marketing   association  defines  branding as  a name,  term,  sign, symbol, or  design, or a combination  of them  intended   to  identify  the  goods  or  a services of  one  seller   or group  of  sellers  and  to differentiate  them from  those  of  competitors.   Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 

(2006:  170) defined  branding  as the  activity  of giving  a particular  name  and  image  to goods  and services  so that  people  will be  attracted to them a  tool  of  marketing  used  for  the  purpose  of  product  identification   among  other  uses. 

        Branding is also to win consumers brand loyalty.

Brand  name  is the  name  given  to  a product by the  company  that  produces  it  and  this  enable  the  consumers to  easily   identify  the  products. Modern  marketing  is  facing a lot of challenges  which  includes  growing  affluence  and  change  in the  tast  of  consumers  coupled  with the  drift  of  market  from  a monopolistic  structure  to that    of  a near  perfect competition   consumer now  have  lots  of  products  alternative to  choose  from. The  result  is  a gradual  elimination  of the  “concept  called  “Brand  Loyalty”  and  the  emergency  of  a new  idea  called  “Brand  Switching”. 

        Brand  switching  is the act  of  discontinuing  the  purchases  of a  product  brand  in  favour  of  another brand.  The marketing concept and Nigerian market structure (perfect competition or rather monopolistic) brought about product multiplicity in Nigeria.  Lots  of  product  close   substitutes  now  exist an consumers  are now  dangling  like  pendulum  from one  product brand  to another.

        Recently, brand switching has taken its toll on the soft drink market  in  Nigeria. For instance,  we   have  malta drinks brands such  as  Amstle Malta, Guinness Malt, Hi-malt and Grand Malt and many more.  A  further  study  shows  also  that  consumers  but  switch from  one  brand  to  another. 

        This  simply  implies that  the  malta drinks, marketers have  been  battling   seriously  on how  to  over  come  this  trend . Given the  above,  the  aim  of the  research  is to  carryout  a research  into  the causative favours of  soft  drinks. 

        This  will  guide  marketers  against  being  vulnerable  to  brand  switching  behavioiur  of  consumers. 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Kotler and Keller (2006:193), define  consumer behaviour as the  study  of how individuals, groups  and organization  select,  buy, use  and dispose, of goods, services, ideas, or  experiences  to   satisfy  their  needs  and  wants.

Schiffman  and  Kanuk (2007: 3)  Defined  consumer   behaviour  as the  behaviour that  consumers  display  in  searching  for, purchasing,  sing,  evaluating  and  disposing  of products  and services that  they expect will  satisfy their  needs  their  behaiour  are focused  on  how  individuals  make decisions to  spend  their available  resources  (time,  money,  effort) on consumption  related  items. That in includes what they  buy, why they buy it,  where they  buy it,  how often  they buy  it, how they  evaluate  it  after the  purchase , the impact of such  evaluations  on  future  purchases  and  how  they  dispose  of  it. To major  psychological disciplines com into play when observing and try in to explain  consumer  behaviour. The first  cognitive psychology. Cognitive  psychology  is the study of all knowledge related (mental) behaviours and they are as follows: attention, perception, memory, comprehension  and  decision  making and they  play an  important  role  in  consumer  behaviour. 

        The  second  psychological  discipline   that  has  theories to  explain  certain  phenomenon  is  “`The  study  of the manner in   which  the  personality, attitudes,  motivation  behaviour of  individuals  influence and influences by social groups (Britaninnica  Online) 

        The  affect and  social  influence and  reference  groups links  are  two  important   topics  studied  in social  psychology  that  have an  important  impact on  consumer  beaviour.   However,  limited  problem  solving  is  that  bevaiour exhibited  by  a  consumer,  who  is  deciding  to try  a  new  brand,  responds  to  emotional  or  environmental  appeal such  as the  point  of  purchase  display  and  this situation gives impetus to consumer exhibition of brand switching behaviour.

Emotional appeal has not been the only stimuli responsible for brand switching.  The response of consumers to other marketing mix stimuli such as the pricing of the various brands distributional strategy, product design availability of product, and quality may also give rise to brand switch behaviour.

        Given the afore mentioned facts, the main problem of this study is to

i.             Make an inquest or determine the factors or variables that give rise to brand switching among consumers of malta drinks.

ii.            To ascertain the implications of brand switching behaviour of consumers on marketing strategies employed by manufacturers of malta drinks.

iii.          To Inquire into how the marketing mix such as price, product design and quality, distribution and promotion influence consumers of soft drink of switch into another brand.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

It is quiet unfortunate that no marketer can afford to stay relaxed when its products are loosing its market share to competitors especially in a free market economy like ours.  Given this, the prime objective of this study therefore is to:

1.           To establish the impact of the marketing mix on the brand switching behaviour of malta drinks consumers.

2.            To determine the factors that promote brand switching among malta drinks consumers

3.           To discover the relative strengths of the various brands enumerated for this study within a specified market.

4.            To ascertain the effect of brand switching by consumers on the rate of consumption of different brands within the market under survey.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.   Assessment of the impact of brand switching bahevour of malta drinks is important?

2.   What promote brand switching?

3.   What strengths are effective in the market for various brand?

4.   Determination of brand switching by consumers on the rate of consumption of different brands within the market?

1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of a clear result, the following hypothesis have been drawn and will be tested:-

H01 :Consumers switching of soft drink brand is not

significantly influenced by price differences

H1:   Consumers switching of soft drink brand is significantly influenced by price differences

H02:  Availability of soft drink distributional efficiency does not constitute a major factor in consumer soft drink brand switching.

H1:   Availability of malta drinks distributional efficiency constitutes a major factor in consumer soft drink brand switching.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of the study:

–       It will enable producers (marketers) to identify brand switching causative factor among consumers

–       It will go further to buttress the inevitable role of consumers and general market research in the new business era.

–       It will help brand owners to develop marketing strategies which will enable them reduce the impact of brand switching on their product line.

Also the researcher hopes that the study would be relevant to other consumer goods marketers engaged in competition with producers of close substitute such as cosmetics and beverages.

AN INDEPTH STUDY OF ON THE BRAND SWITCHING BEHAVIOR OF MALT DRINK CONSUMER

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ONLINE DEATH AND BIRTH REGISTRATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

 The activities of hospital which includes personal records drugs inventory, disease inventory and birth statistics keeps on growing from time to time due to apparent population explosion. These areas can benefit from the information technology tool called computer. The control and management of the data call for data base management system (DBMS), which handle structured data that will store manual or card index or cabinet containing file. The main objective of this study is to enable the staff ABSUTH to keep accurate record on the birth and death rate statistic. The study will help the staff in many ways and will be useful in the following way; to embrace the full knowledge and impact of computers in birth rate system to enhance efficiency. The new system was designed using Microsoft ASP.NET and HTML programming language. This language was chosen because of its wealth of class libraries and features for developing online based applications.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The ways computer application is embraced in every aspect of human life shows that every activity, organization cooperation, companies, hospitals etc need to be computerized. Hospital activities are not left out. The information revolution that has moved from the individual age to the information age is as a result of several developments is in electronic and information.

The high to revolution and computer in particular is availability of power at modest cost for the consumption of business organization makes the difference. The introduction of microcomputer to information processing gives to all levels of managers, more power to retrieve and process information; it is not a difficult task to computer specialist.

However, arrival of the desktop computer and ability to retrieve needed information from many driven source, promise a huge increase in productivity of decision makers. Furthermore, it is very necessary to survey continually the use of the newly discovered or developers. The necessary information to make changes of existing technology.

This fact point the need to document every aspect of computer system. Attention should be turned towards reduced need to understand the technicalities, which the system developers bothered with in order to design and implement a new system. The activities of hospital which includes personal record, drug inventory, disease inventory and birth statistics keeps on growing from time to time due to apparent population explosion. These areas can benefit from the information technology tool called computer. The control and management of the data call for data base management system (DBMS), which handle structure data that will store manual on card index or cabinet containing files.

 1.2        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba. The ABSUTH, which is my case study, is located along Eziukwu Road Aba in Abia State, Nigeria, it is one of the warfare home established in Aba, it was formerly known as general hospital, Abia State unviesity Teaching Hospital Stated in 1920 by colonial master. It was change to teach 0sing hospital in 1994 and was accredited on June 1996, it is a standard teaching hospital that does the following:

i.            To promise quality medical services to all inhabitant of ABia and its envious

ii.         To undertake the diagnosis and treatment of a board range of ailment etc the hospital has staff strength of over. It has the following department which includes:

Administrative

Medical division which has internal medical pediatric obstetric

Gynecology and sergeant

Account

Micro laboratory

Cattery work

Central stores

Laundry

Nursing departments etc.

 The hospital keeps the following record in this manner: hospital attendance. Number of admission in hospital beds or discharge/death. Delivery which include normal delivery and abnormal delivery, surgical operation.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ONLINE DEATH AND BIRTH REGISTRATION SYSTEM

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

The study examined sales promotion as a persuasive activity hence is the direct and indirect communication used by firms to influence present and potential customers fro the purpose of making sales. This study was in the main time, exploratory and descriptive. Data were collected on source specific objective adopted for the resources. Data collection method employed primary sources eg personal interviews and questionnaire and secondary data example books, newspaper and so on. These data were analyzed with some simple statistical looks such as percentage tables and significant level. The study also considered whether ‘advertising medium message to the target audience among others. It was known that the philosophy of the company mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria limited Aba promotion is not different from what other marketing companies have been practicing. Sales promotion has great influence in the buying behaviour of customers. Most industries in Nigeria have riot yet embraced full promotional consciousness. Effective sales promotion could help companies to survive the stifle competition in business, operation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the best things that has happened to this country is the introduction of mobile Telecommunication system in the nation information industry. Before the advert of Chief Obasanjo regime in 1999. Telephone service was inform of analogue form. This analogue system most times has not yield the good objective which a sound telephone system should render.

Since the incention/introduction, of the method of communication, life was enhanced through its services. Nigeria is now linked with the, global community making interaction between the people to be more cordial in spite of the distance because of the fact that all business men went to maximize profit, it is believed that embarking on sales promotion which entails showcasing all the services one has in stock will attract more customers which will in term increase the returns or gains which a company like MTN is expected to make.

It is my behalf that. this work wilt enhance understanding which will help to increase the services of al the service provider in general and MTN in particular.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

People often confuse sales promotion with broader term, “promotion” but sates promotion is one of the promotional toots.

Promotion consist of advertising, personal selling direct marketing, all term to communication, the advantage of the firm’s goods and services to it’s customer. Promotion is one of the four “Ps” of product marketing and has to do with all the activities carried out by the organization communication with the public about their product. A target audience can be in any stage are awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase. This is called the hierarchy of effect. Because they represent stages a buyers goes through in moving towards a purchase and each describes a possible objective or effect of promotion. The goal of promotion is to get the prospect to the final or purchase stage, but in most cases, that may not be possible until the person has moved through the earlier stages. Thus a promotion effort may have appeared to be modest but essential objective such as creating knowledge about a product’s advantage. The term promotion originated a Latin word “promotioners” meaning to move forward, to advance from the view point of business practices, promotion is the marketing communication activity that attempt to inform, remind and persuade individual., to accept, resell, recommend or use a product, idea or institution.

Sales promotion on the other hand is a semi personal form of communication which is short term in nature and aim at achieving more sales and building of better image of the company.

The America Marketing Association (2000) define sales promotion as those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity designed to stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as snows, denotations and various non recurrent selling effort not in the ordinary routine.

Kolter (2002) defined sales promotion as activities which are of short term in nature designed not stimulate the interest of perfect market Sales promotion can also be seen as those marketing efforts that are supplementary in nature and seeks to induce buying decision. Sales promotion activities may also aim at inducing customers to act immediately without further delay by offering price relate, time constraint, contest, premium etc. it is also defines as short term inducement of value offered to arouse interest of buying goods and services. It is a promotional tool which unlike the other element to have a temporary effect on the buyer. The major consumers promotion tools free samples, premium (gift) capon, trading stamps free trails, deals rebate, product demonstrations point of purchasing displays prizes (contest, game, sweep stakes) etc. the study x-ravel the reason which firms embark on sales promotions exercise with short period. It is strong to be better in the market than a non promoted product. This is because the consumers are meant to he aware of such product through such means.

One of the constraints that affected the study was inadequate funding of the research exercise enough money was not available to ensure smooth collection of data.

Network service providers are those firms that provide telecommunication service to its consumers examples include mobile telecommunication limited.(MTN), globacom Nigeria limited Zain Nigeria limited. (MTN) Aba, there are about 120 staff that is presently working there and the name of the managing director is chief v. Odili. Mobile telecommunication network Nigeria is a part of mobile telecommunication network (MTN) group Africa’s’ leading cellular telecommunication company. On may 16 2001 MTN become the first global in Nigeria. Therefore, the company launched full commercial operation beginning with Lagos, Abuja, Port-Harcourt. MTN paid two hundred and eight five million dollars to enable her acquire for GSM licenses in Nigeria in January 20th 2001. Therefore, on 18th May 2002, Mobile telecommunication network Nigeria limited launched commercial operation in Aba, Owerri, Umuahia etc on 10th  November 2003 MTN commissioned a corporate office at Aba located at Umungasi, Aba-Owerri road Aba Abia state. To date in excess of us $ 1.8 Billion has been invested building mobile telecommunication infrastructure in Nigeria.

Since being launched, MTN has steadily deployed it’s services across Nigeria. It now provide service in 223 cities and 10,000 villages and communities and growing members of high ways across the country spanning the 36 states of Nigeria and the federal capital territory Abuja. Many of more villages and communities are being connected to the world of telecommunication for the time ever.

The company’s digital microwave transmission backbone the 3400 kilometer, yellow plan was commissioned by president Olusegun Obasanjo on 10 Dec 2003 and is reputed to be the most extensive digital microwaves transmission intrastate in all Africa. MTN Nigeria is also recently expended its network Nigeria is also recently expanded its network capacity to include a new numbering range with the prefix 0806, 070 and recently 081, making MYN the first GSRN network in Nigeria to have adopted an additional numbering system having exhausted its historical subscribed numbering range of 0803.

1.2 STATEMENTOF PROBLEM

Major problem centered on the ineffective promotion and inefficient management of some network service

•, providers with particular reference to mobile telecommunication network (Nigeria) limited Aba. This specific problems were internal and external. On the external form, the MTN Nigeria Limited was faced with competition from other network service providers with each striving to have a bigger share of the market. It was also found out that the company (MTN Nigeria) has the problem of reaching Hinterland who form the large bulk of the customers, who do not understand promotional massages  and do not at times have access to redemption centers or other branch offices

There exists also some problem with staff of MTN Nigeria Limited. This ranged from various company staff who also participate in promotion directly by leaking vital information to their relatives which is against the rules of eh sales promotion. At the end, of the promotion sale may start to go down and portray negative attribute to the firm.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major objective of the study is to determine the evaluation of sales promotion on the marketing network service providers with respect to mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN)

The specific objective of the study includes

i.     To find out which advertising medium would best effectively direct the promotion massage to the target audience.

and do not at times have access to redemption centers or other branch offices.

There exists also some problem will staff of MTN Nigeria Limited. This ranged from various company staff who also participate or promotion directly by leaking vital information to their relatives which is against the rules of eh sales promotion. At the end, of the promotion sales may start to go down and portray negative attribute to the firm.

I.            To determine how a good corporate image can be built by MTN Nigeria Limited with the people of Nigeria.

II.          To establish methods of sustaining good corporate image end reputation.

III.       To analyze sales promotion can generated huge sales fro the companies involved in sales promotion

IV.       To make recommendations for profitable sales promotion activities

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were made

i.            Does increase in competition against mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria limited has a significant effect on its market?

ii.           Does ineffective promotional budgeting and planning has significant effect on purchasing of the product of MTN Nigeria limited?

iii.         Does inefficient finance affect promotional budget of MTN Aba? (Mobile Telecommunication network Nigeria  limited Aba)

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study from all intends and purposes seemed as a basis for other researcher in the business field particular in the sales promotional activities in organization.

The information gained from the study also serves as a useful guide to marketing managers in planning a sales promotion programme. it is equally expected that the that the findings would serve as input to entrepreneurs, marketing and sales managers to embark on intensive measure to plan their organization it will give there insight into how they can achieve their aim using sales promotion effectively.

To the marketing practitioners, it will open their eye to the hidden treasure of sales promotion.

Researchers in the field of marketing will also find these

work valuable while carrying out research work related to it.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study which is an evaluation of sales promotion on the increase in the network service by provider will cover mobile telecommunication MTN Nigeria Aba.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

On the course of this particular project the researcher encountered a lot of difficulties which restricted me during the study, the factors that imitated against this work include time, lack of adequate found and dearth of secondary materials. These factors reduced the ability of getting much information.

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED ELECTRIC COOKER WITH TIME TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND DISPLAY

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research work is to design and implement a microcontroller – based digital time aware oven temperature controller and display. Various kinds of oven exist for various purposes: electrical, gas and manual types for either home use or industrial purposes. The research is achieved using the AT89C51 Microcontroller which compares the oven temperature with the preset temperature to determine when to turn ON or OFF the oven, the transistorized Relay which switches ON and OFF the oven depending on the logic signal sent by the microcontroller and the LM35 which is a temperature sensor that senses or determines the oven temperature. It works with the LM358 which amplifies the picked signal and which also does the conversion (voltage to pulse width) and sends to the microcontroller for processing, it also has push buttons for setting the preset temperature and indicators showing the status of the oven. The accuracy of the microcontroller – based time aware oven temperature controller makes it more reliable as a particular temperature which a particular meal is expected to cook and be okay could be set.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

A microcontroller based time aware oven is an automatic time control oven/cooker that monitors a preset time and regulates the oven/cooker temperature over the set time [2, 12]. If the temperature of the oven increases or reaches the set maximum, the heating element is automatically turned off, but when the temperature reduces, the heating element is also automatically turned on. This on and off activity takes place within the set time given to the controlling unit, say five minutes, and when the time runs out, the oven is automatically turned off. This is because the oven is a time conscious system. The research has an electric oven with a heating element as the heat source; it also has a microcontroller system. The system uses a temperature sensor LM35 to determine the ambient temperature surrounding the oven. An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. It is most commonly used in cooking and pottery. Two common kinds of modern ovens are gas ovens and electric ovens. Ovens used in pottery are also known as kilns. An oven/cooker used for heating or for industrial processes is called a furnace or industrial oven [6, 10].

In cooking, the conventional oven is a kitchen appliance and is used for roasting and heating. Food normally cooked in this manner includes meat, casseroles and baked goods such as bread, cake and other desserts. In the past, cooking ovens were fueled by wood or coal. Modern ovens are fueled by gas or electricity. When an oven is contained in a complete stove, the burners on the top of the stove may use the same or different fuel than the oven [5, 7, 8].

Some ovens have a full logic system that can start and end the cooking process for you so you can simply set and forget [1, 3, 11]. To keep plates and food warm ready for serving, some ovens offer optional warming racks. If you want to enjoy roasts the low-fat way consider adding a rotisserie option to your new oven. A defrosting feature can help you thaw frozen food quickly.

1.1                                         BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

Energy has been identified as an indispensable factor that enhances the socioeconomic development of a country (Rahman, M. M. et al) 2012. Socio-economic prosperity is said to dependent largely upon energy conservation (Yong, K. P et al). Satisfying the need of required energy to be consumed in any given society will require that while the Government and private organizations are making effort to generate sufficient electricity, as much as possible the citizenry must devise means for optimum utilization (Rahman, M. M. et al) 2012. Most electric cookers available today lack the vital aspect of control, which has led to several losses ranging from food burning, power wastage, human losses etc. This among other factors has inspired the need of integrating control in electric cookers in a bid to reduce to the barest minimum or completely eliminate some these losses. The major parameters that can often be controlled in an electric cooker or oven are the cooking temperature and time.

Generally, control of temperature and time can be realized in two ways; either using analogue designs or digital designs. Analogue designs generally make use of simple timers and thermostats to regulate the time and temperature respectively where as digital designs make use of components such as microcontrollers, sensors, integrated circuits etc.

Digital designs generally offer the advantages of more precision and accuracy, cheaper cost, less susceptibility to noise and interference from the circuit, easy troubleshooting, more flexibility etc over analogue designs (Bany Wooland G) 1984.

1.2                                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this research work is to design and implement a microcontroller – based digital time aware oven temperature controller and display.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED ELECTRIC COOKER WITH TIME TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND DISPLAY

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OF SERVICE PRODUCTS

ABSTRACT

The evaluation and development and marketing of service products in educational sector is a very interesting topic to research on because it will help both the service industries and government at large to enact policies that will help in boosting the educational level of our community. In trying to make this study a success, the researcher used Imo State University as a case study to validate the findings of this study. The researcher chose this institution because it represents the service industries in Nigeria. The researcher used oral interviews and questionnaires to collect information relative to this study. The researcher made use of primary and secondary data sources; the primary data sources is made up of interviews and questionnaires while the secondary data sources is made up of textbooks, marketing journals, magazine relative to the topic under review and also information gotten from a combined chamber of commerce and industry. In analyzing the data gotten, the researcher used simple table and percentages and in interpreting the hypothesis, Chi-square (X2) was used to validate the hypothesis. The objective of carrying out this study is to let managers know the essence of marketing service products and how best they should package their services products as to must up with the aims

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Marketing of service products can be traced back to the 18” century when Jean Baptise Say rejected Adam Smith’s notion that immaterial products ate not wealth because they were not susceptible of conservation. Jean Baptize argued that activities  have utility and give satisfaction to the consumer, like !the doctors who cures the sick man, are productive and that agriculture, manufacturing and commerce should be traced on an equal basis. The acceptance of services as legitimate activities is reflected in (the current division of industry by economists into three main groups; primary, secondary and tertiary.                                  This research will focus mainly on the tertiary activities which refers to service and distributive trade.

Foote and Hate further classified service into three as follow

1 Tertiary; These include restaurants and holds, barber and beauty shops, laundry and dry cleaning establishments, home repair and maintenance.

2 Quarter nary: This includes transportation, commerce, communication, France and administration; the salient characteristics being that they facilitate and effectuate  (the division of labor

3 Quandary: This includes health care, education and recreation; the chief aspect of this sector being that services rendered are designed to change and improve the recipient in some way. Prior to the evolution of services, manufacturers of goods relied more or less entirely on the technical qualities of their products. we had a seller’s market, where manufacturers did not have to offer much in the form of services or other auxiliaries to their customers. They did not seek for the differentiate their offerings from those of their competitors in order to maintain market share and survive,in recent years, massive changes in policy, governance, structure we effect status of education have been taken place. Environmental changes, such as privatization, diversification, decentralization, internationalization and increased competition in education are common. These changes have an effect oh how educational institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for the marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible to touch see or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system, fictional sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions air trying to evaluate  the   services  provided  and  comparing  these  service  products  with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive, organizations evaluate quality of service offered to all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasunnan et al (1988) is widely ace institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for the marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible to, see or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system, fictional sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards educational sector. Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector is an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions are trying to evaluate  the   services  provided  and  comparing  these  service  products  with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive Organizations evaluate quality of service offered to all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasunnan et al (1988) is widely accept institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for ‘he marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible *o (quell, sec or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system Llucational sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards educational sector. Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector is an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions ate trying lo evaluating the services provided and comparing these privies products with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive, organizations evaluate quality of service offered lo all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasurrnan in (1988) is widely accepted, service quality model is consists of five   dimensions   that  is  tangibles,   reliability,   responsiveness,   assurance empathy. Service is characterized by changing patterns of consumption as well as employment and output. Services are those separately identifiable, essentially intangible activities which provide want satisfaction and that, arc not necessarily tied to the sale of a product ‘ii other service. Marketing of service products is any activity or benefit that one party can offer lo another that is essentially intangible and does not result to ownership transfer of anything. Marketing of service products to educational sector fulfills the benefit junco with the help a set of tangible and intangible companies. where buyer of the service does not get any ownership. He may have tangible physicaldance to show for the service exchange transaction but Me fckial benefit :crude to purely intangible in nature. five   dimensions   that  is  tangibles,   reliability,   responsiveness,   assurance empathy. Service is  characterized by  changing patterns  of consumption  ns  well  as employment and output. Services are those separately identifiable, essentially intangible activities which provide want satisfaction and that, arc not necessarily tied to the sale of a product

‘ii other service.

Marketing of service products is any activity or benefit that one party can offer lo another that is essentially intangible and does not result to ownership transfer of Anything. Marketing of service products to educational sector fulfills the benefit with the help a set of tangible and intangible companies . who buyer of the service does not get any ownership. He may have tangible physical dance to show for the service exchange transaction but Me fckial benefit »:crude to purely intangible in nature. marketing of service products to educational sectors is characterized by the following:

Intangible: marketing of service product is intangible in the sense that it is possible to taste, feel, see, hear or smell services. Inseparability: this implies that services cannot be separated from the provider.

Heterogeneity:  services cannot be standardized even though standard may be used.

Perish ability: products rendered in an educational sector cannot be stored, this research work shows how the marketing of service products influences the quality of the education in the educational sector using Imo State University as a ;a>e study. This work also reveals how the marketing mix is applied ip educational services of our higher institutions of learning.                                                                                                                       

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY

Imo State University (IMSU) in Owerri, Imo State of Nigeria was established in 1981 through Law No. 4 passed by the Imo State House of Assembly. The university admitted the first intake of 392 pioneer students on October 23, 1981. After the creation of Abia State in 1991, the Ulnru Campus of who university became the Abia State University. Imo State University is a fully functional university. Most of the programmers of the university have obtained foil accreditation from National Universities Commission of Niger. The jcsuH of the 1999/2000 accreditation exercise of National Universities Commission confirmed that high rate and acceptance of the university by the Nigerian public. The university was ranked Ist among all state universities it) Nigeria and the 10th overall among both state and federal universities. The university scooted 100% in 2006 and 2007 accreditation visit, with all programme visited getting accreditation.

3.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

purpose of this study is to examine critically the impact of marketing of •nice products to the quality of education rendered in our educational sector.

“this piece of work will give an insight into the most effective way through which service products can have positive impact on educational sectors. This work will serve as guideline to management of our institutions or even management of various service firms in improving the recipients of (heir services with the efficient receive  they render. this research work will get management and government acquainted with the of services and how it can be applied to achieve academic excellence in our

– Dilutions of higher learning using State University as a case study.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of immense benefit to the institution under study (lmo State University).   The  findings  and  recommendations   shall   be  beneficial   to  the management of service firms in dealing with the problems relating to marketing office products. This study shall also be useful to scholars and researchers who are interested in carrying out research on the marketing of service product? or-ted topics.

Finally, this work will be of great help to the government in making their plans >and budget estimates concerning educational sectors on yearly basis.                                                                           

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In other to fulfill the objective of this study some workable research question were formulated, tested and used as guide for the study. To what extent do service products enhance the quality of education in our situations of learning?

What is the quality of service tendered in the educational sectors?

Do the skills of the service provider affect the quality of the service provided in the educational sectors/Who me the target customers in the educational sectors?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

appraise the development and marketing of service products in educational , the following hypothesis has been formulated. The hypothesis involves the null hypothesis (HO) and alternate hypothesis (III). The null hypothesis is bound Rejection when proven wrong and the alternate hypothesis will he accepted. „ Jo: The quality of service products provided for educational sector does not have.

An impact in the attainment of academic excellence.

Hi: The quality of service products provided for the educational sector is a determinant factor to the attainment of academic excellence,

HI-opposite of the null hypothesis you need to state it equally .

There for the opposite null hypothesis directional alternative hypothesis

Finally the null hypothesis is said to be stated when it suggestion has no differences in effects of one or more independent variables on the dependent variable .

The directional alternative hypothesis is said to be directional when it predicts a differences and indicates the expected direction of that difference.

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this project work was limited to Imo State University, Owerri. This study was limited to this institution because it represents the activities going on in

Every educational sector of the nation. ‘the scope of this .study was limited for effective test and result of the quality of service rendered by the management and

The effectiveness of the services towards the attainment of academic excellence.

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OF SERVICE PRODUCTS

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

This project is aimed at developing a web-based system, which manages the activity of “Student Project Management” and allocation. This system will manage the database and maintain a list of all student or groups of student that have registered as a finalist in this site, and for those students that been shortlisted who have passed the eligibility criteria as set by the lecturer/supervisor. The programming Language used is Microsoft ASP.NET. This Language was chosen because of its object oriented features and class libraries for developing online applications.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

In many tertiary institutions in the country, students seek a project in a given field of specialty as part of the upper level of their degree programme. Usually, a project can be filled by at most one student, though in some cases a project is suitable for more than one student to work on simultaneously. To give students something of a choice, there should be as wide a range of available projects as possible, and in any case the total number of project places should not be less than the total number of students. Typically a lecturer will also offer a range of projects, but does not necessarily expect that all will be taken up.

Each student has preferences over the available projects that he/she finds acceptable, whilst a lecturer will normally have preferences over the students that he/she is willing to supervise. There may also be upper bounds on the number of students that can be assigned to a particular project, and the number of students that a given lecturer is willing to supervise. In this paper we consider the ways of allocating student project in our various institutions.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The traditional way of allocating project to students in our higher institution need to be reconsidered since project/research writing is sensitive aspect of student education in the higher institution.

Before now, lecturers ask students to go out and get project topics for themselves for approval. This system made project writing look less like a class assignment which does not require an extra effort to complete rather an issue of copying.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

With the advancement in file saving and file retrieval system, institution cannot afford to be ignorant of the basic tool, which is the driving force behind technological oriented administration.

     Much can be achieve if an institution have a well organized management system. Students project can easily be allocated to each or group of students without the problem of delayed project allocation from the supervisor or conflict of topic between two individual or group of student in the same department. Students update can be easily be accessed if the database system is enhanced.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For teachers, a school portal enables quick and easy management of student accounts and review of project work.

1.5  SCOPE OF STUDY

The research will center on the design and implementation of Student Project Allocation and Management system for the department of computer science in the polytechnic of NEKEDE.

1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.

The two major limitations of this study are the time limits within which the study is expected to be completed as well as financial constraints. The time constraint prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/fro the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

HTML CODE- HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.

Markup language – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.

Web browser – A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.

File extension – A file extension is the suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.

Email – Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. Email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.

TCP/IP – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronym that describes the operations involved

TEXT FILE – A text file is a computer file that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.

Hyper Link –   A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM

PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY)

ABSTRACT

This project will be centered on the production control system. This production control system being operated manually ad due to the numerous problem encountered and over payment.

A design was taken to computerized in order to check this problem the problem were identified after series of interviews and examination of document after which analysis will be made and a computerized procedure recommended.

This project will also suggest how to successfully implement the computerized procedure and to overcome the obstacle that would hinder the successful implementation of the system. The new system was developed using visual basic 6.0 and access database. This language was chosen because of its easy syntax and features for developing windows based applications.

CHAPTER ONE

PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM

1.0     INTRODUCTION

In his definition K.O. Hockyer, defined production in 1990 as an act of putting together human being, materials, plant and money in order to provide goods and services. The success of production comes about as a result of effective planning execution and control of activities within the frame work of the cooperate objective within the frame work of the cooperative objective.

This a place where people are employed for the purpose of making, uttering, repairing and or lamenting, finishing clearing, washing, breaking and adopting for sale of any articles.

The factory is regarded as a continued self sufficient body and it depend upon integration only when other parts of the organization change. Although this view is fact changing, the dangers f these visions are great, for example government registration may face a marketing change which requires a design modification in turn, can alter processes in such a way that operations may be displayed with consequent redundancy and retaining problems.

This problem would have seen and their effect integrated to look, outside the four walls of their machine production unit. Similarly a board decision to change from a selling policy where orders are accepted to marketing policy. Where orders are sought will inevitably demand major changes. In the white system of factory management. Again, this can be foreseen it the factory managers look in wards and out wards.

Furthermore, the factory itself provide the environment for it own constituent department and again the interaction of parts within themselves and with host environment. The interdependency between the two products important consequences.

  1. Changes within the firm affect the environment to survive therefore, organizations must be prepared to respond to change and managers must not think as if any decision to affect a change is only internal
  2. Change in the environment, which imposes change in the organization.

Today one of the most potentially powerful change agents is the computer, which can permit the consideration problems that are more complex than any which can be death with. For decision of the managers to be right, the information normally must be timely accurate etc good information therefore help to reduce uncertainly. A system that generates good information normally is seen, addressed or sensed as a group of components that interact to achieve a purpose such as the production of goods.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Seven up bottle company development in Nigeria is one of the argest independent manufacturer and distribution of the well-known and widely consumed brands of soft drinks in Nigeria. Their brand are pepsi. 7 up Miranda teen and mountain dew, which we produce and market will dur present 9 manufacturing plants. The also market over 200 distribution centers that we also call depots spread over the nooks and crane of Nigeria. Our workforce is currently the in the neigbourhood of 35 employees. The cost associated with a unit of sale increased in Q2 2009 over the corresponding period in Q2 2008. This is reflected in the PB1 margain which decreased to 5. 62% in Q2 2009 6.44% as at Q2 2008, and down from 6.38% as at the end of the financial year in March, 2009. This shows that the company’s total cost as a percentage of to stands at 94.38% up marginally from 93.36% recorded in the corresponding period of 2003. PAT margin currently stands at 4 78%, down from 5.26% in the corresponding period of 2008, but from 4.78%, down 5.26% in the corresponding that the percentage of 90, PBT and PAT in the Q2 2009  result to the fully year audited TO, PBY and PAT for the period ended March to the 2009 show that it performs better both in log line and botton line in HYI. This can be attributed to the Christian and new year sales and other ceremonies usually associated with year end.

To provide a system that will reduce the over head in maintaining independent date fills with its associated redundancy and integrity problems.

PRODUCTION CONTROL SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY)

IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING COMPANY

ABSTRACT

The research work examines the IMPORTANCE of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm and to achieve the purpose. Past contributions and the opinions at experts were reviewed. The research design adopted in carrying out this research work is quas – experimental design and the primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaire from ten (10) respondents draw from three small scale firm in Owerri. The data was subsequently analyzed using frequency table and percentages via analysis of variance solution software package (SPSS). After critically analyzing the data, the following were the findings that there is a significant relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm and secondly moderating factors do interfere in the relationship between marketing COMPANY and recommendations were made, that firm should be enlightened on the IMPORTANCE of marketing research and how it attest marketing performance positively, adapt in order to have an edge over technological tools to suit current market situation. The IMPORTANCE of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm (A case study of some selected manufacturing firm in Owerri Metropolis).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian economy for long has been characterized with little wonder, Nigeria is often known as a reseller market. The few manufacturing firm still operating are either muiti-national cooperation or government establishment. This scenario has adversely affected the Nigeria economy to an extend. It has become dumping ground for other countries.

Although a lot of economics reform programms were initiated in Nigeria to make the manufacturing industry vibrant and allow infant industries to grow, such programms were never sustained to the later due to political instability and mismanagement of funds by stakeholders. Nevertheless, the recent programmes of the federal government has given hope to the manufacturing COMPANY or industry as small and medium scale manufacturing firm are gradually emerging everywhere.

However, due to mildness and inexperience of the infant manufacturing firm, there has been a continuous cry of out consumers of low quality products and service. The major reason for this poor performance has been attributed to the lack of marketing research by large cooperation in Nigeria.

Marketing research plays a vital role in the success of every business entity. Expect believe that marketing research is the main pilot of commercialization.

Kotler (200) defined marketing research as the systematic and objective identification, collection and analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Armstrong (2004) defined marketing research as the function that links the marketer to the consumer and the public through information. He further said that marketing research is used to define and identify marketing opportunities and problems to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance and to improve understanding of the marketing process from the above definition of marketing research, it is assumed that marketing research is a discipline approach to problem and prospect of ensuring efficiency and portability in any firm.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

With the recent proliferation of small and medium scale enterprises in major cities Nigeria is sure to become an industrialized economy in the next decades. If these enterprise are given the necessary support (security, fund, expertise, conducive environment and industry protection) by the government.

Nevertheless, the manufacturing industry just as the financial sector has suffered enough economic crisis and the result is evident in the quality of service provided by COMPANY in this sector. In spite of the presence of  regulatory such as Nigeria standard organization (NSO), National agency for food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) and consumerist the quality of products and service rendered by manufacturers is on the decline. This decline is on the evidence of the negligence of COMPANY to properly determine and fill in the need and wants of consumers.

This shows that marketing research has not this been properly embraced in this industry or by manufactures despite valuable studies and write up of experts, all shows that the contribution/benefits of marketing research to the success of business organization is immense.

In fact, most managers and elite nurse are of the note that marketing research have no value in developing nation like Nigeria, and that has been one major reason for this negligence.

As a result, this study was embarked upon to investigate the extend of relationship between  marketing research and the service level delivered by small and medium scale manufacturing firm in Imo State.

1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study has its major purpose of investigating the extend of investigating the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm. The study also examines the following specific objectives.

1.       Whether marketing research is conducting in the manufacturing industry.

2.       The extend to which marketing research is conducted.

3.       The extend of qualification of the personnel.

4.       The extend to which marketing research tools (Research plan, data collection, and analysis instrument) are validated.

5.       How frequently is marketing research conducted by manufactures?

6.       The extend to which manufactures (management) implement their research findings.

7.       Whether marketing research contributes significantly to the performance / growth of the manufacturing industry.

8.       How frequently are the marketing research personnel exposed to exposed to training and motivation.

9.       Whether moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and service level desired by manufacturers

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

1.    What is the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing COMPANY in Imo State?

2.    Do small scales firm carry out marketing research?

3.    How frequently is marketing research carried out by manufacturers?

4.    To what extend do manufacturers validate their marketing research tools before conducting a research

5.    To what extend do manufacturers execute the findings of a research study?

6.    Does marketing research contribute significantly to the performance of the manufacturing industry in Imo State?

7.    Do moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm?

1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has it’s main significance to enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm among which are the benefit derived by the sponsoring companies and it’s customers when marketing research is properly used.

Secondly, it helps the firm to make better marketing decisions, which inturns results in product and services that better meets the need of the consumers. Marketing research also provides the information that links marketer with their customers, and the background needed to make effective decision on a wide range of issues.

Also marketing research is very vital in the aspect of employment opportunities. That is it service as a means of employment opportunities there by improving or enhancing the economic stand of the country.

Finally, through marketing research, companies learn more about consumers; need result in more resulting products and services.

1.6SCPOE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The research works covers the goal, strategies and implementation of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm.

The research work encountered some short coming in trying to get some necessary information and materials for successful completion some of which are.

Time Constraint: the time that was given for the research work was not sufficient enough for a through work to be carried out.

Financial Constraint: the short of funds limited the researcher to only three small manufacturing COMPANY in Owerri metropolis and also restriction to printing and administrating questions to selected few among which are the wholesaler and customers of the firm ORANISATIONAL BUREAUCRACY

THE EFFORTS TO COLLECT ALL THE NEEDED DATA FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF THE SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRM IN Owerri metropolis was not very easy because of their official protocol and organizational bureaucracy.

1.7OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marketing Research: This is a systematic and formal process of obtaining, collating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the findings relevant to specific marketing problems.

Marketing: It is the human activity which involves identifying and satisfying human wants and needs through the exchange process.

Research: This is a systematic orderly service for solution to a problem. It is finding out about something so as to sort out   solution.

Marketing Research: It is the study on itself in a particular service advertisement to determine it’s effectiveness on a target audience.

SMALL SCALE ORGANISATION

It is an organist or acting on it’s belief on a particular business that can be started with less that 100 employee and the minimum of N750,000 and the maximum of N500,000

Service: it is anything of benefit that one party can offer to another, it is essentially intangible and does not involve in the ownership of anything.

Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a marketing for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can satisfy a need or want.

Price: It is one of the marketing mix (4p’s) this is the value agreed upon by the members in the exchange  process. It is the means that allow product or service to get value in the eyes of both the buyers and the sellers.

Satisfaction: Generic belief or pleasures someone derives from consuming a given product or service.

Manufacturing Sector: These are segments of the economy that engages in the production and distribution of goods for human consumption.

Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is a moderation techniques in which participant are asked to place the names of product or services on a grid. It also means how item are ground on diagram to stimulate discussion or use.

IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING COMPANY

MARKET SEMENTATION AS AN EFFICIENT TOOL OF ACHIEVING INCREASED MARKET SHARE

ABSTRACT

This main aim of business is to seek, attract and retain customers who will use the company various products to meet their needs or solve their problems. Successful service organization must therefore understand how customers view services and in what ways it presents a different advantage relative to the company’s offering. Therefore the main objective of this study is to determine the efficiently of market segmentation in increasing market share of a company. The research questions were asked, problems identified and objectives set. At the same time some existing literature on the subject matter was reviewed while a pattern was followed to gather and analysis the data collected. Eight research questions were formulated which guided the study. The analysis is presented by the sue of table, sample percentage to enable one to have an overview. Some of their findings principles were based on the increased in sales of the organization product and determining the efficiency of market segmentation which depends on the managers getting what they want from planning. To change the minds of non-user of market segmentation, organizations and management should know that the planning as rewards. Also management should try to identify each managers needs and expectations so as to increase their moral and planning performances. Based on this study some conclusions were drawn from the findings and they include, organizations should maintain an effective plan, provide a good planning and working environment, pay fair and adequate salaries and also encourage the management. Theoretical research needs to be carried out by other researchers to find out the efficiency of market segmentation in achieving increase market share of the company. Conclusively, the factors mentioned above can make management to be satisfied with planning and more rewarding to the manager and society.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

7up plc was introduced by a Lebanese called Mr. Mohammed Elkhail as a business man, he came to Nigeria in 1926 and trade on household and Kitchen utensils. He also owned later one of the biggest transporting company in West Africa. He went into soft drink business as a kind expansion in 1959, and subsequently introduced 7up bottling company now plc.

The location of the 7up first plant was at Ijora in Lagos now the head quarter where the first bottle of 7up was produced in 1960. also on that day, a total of fourteen crates were produced.

The Ibadan, Ikeja, Kano, Kadunna and Aba plant were opened between 1980 till 1989. also till date more plant have been opened across the country including many depots.

Due to the location of their depots act many place in the country, it was very easy for them with the help their good marketing strategies to enhance distribution across the country penetrating the areas their products were not available.

Finally, the company’s brands of soft drink include 7up, Pepsi Cola, mirinda orange, Mirinda soda, mirinda fruity and maintain dew which was must introduced.

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

No where has business practice been more effected than by the growing consumer demand for variety. The relatively homogenous market of less affluent time could be satisfied with limited product offerings. Increasing purchasing power, however, caused markets to become more heterogeneous and to demand greater advice.

Recognition of this change led to wide acceptance of market segmentation. (Encyclopedia of professional management 1995) in Awa, (2003: 291).

During the decade of the 1930’s the work of Rebonson and chamber line resulted in a revitalization of economic theory. While classical and neoclassical theory provided a useful framework for economic analysis, the theories of perfect competition and pure monopoly had become inadequate as explanations of the comtempony business scene. The theory of perfect competition assumes homogeneity among the component of both the demand diversity and hetero genetic had come to be rule rather than the exception. The reasons for the presence of market segmentation in specific market are many and includes the following:

1.      The specialized or superior resources enjoyed by favourably situated manufacturers.

2.      Variations in producer’s estimates of the nature of market demand with reference to such maters as price sensitivity, colour, materials or package size.

3.      Variations in production equipment and methods or process used by different manufactures of products designed for the same or similar uses.

Because of these and other factors, both planned and uncontrollable difference exist in the product of an industry. As a result, sellers make different appeals in support of their marketing efforts.

As amongst the manufacturers, goals are to satisfy the needs of the consumer, having in mind that no two consumers behave alike although they may have similar be avoid characteristics like:

1.   Buying status; potential;, first time regular

2.   Usage rate

3.   Purchase procedure: seated bids negotiation etc.

Also industrial market might be segmented on the location of the company types. The fact that not every consumer patroness the same retail outlet during each purchase occasions and do not consume a particular product with the same consumption  rate; does not entirely limit the income but will help a producer earn an increase in market share. By segmenting of market into more targeted buyers or groups of buyers, it will be able to grow the existing sales and build news sales, and grow them without cutting price, thereby increasing market share.

Therefore, in other to stay in business, firms ought to recognize the marketing philosophy which says “consumers are the economic and social justification of business existence” (Anozie 2003:28).

Conclusively, segmentation of market into different units is regards the need of the consumer would attract more sales and thereby increase market share which means the proportion or percentage of sales of a particular product or services in given region that are controlled by a company. Market share determines the competitive strength of business in a sector to another.

As in the case of 7-up bottling computer, the strategy of market segmentation is employed.

BRIEF HISTORY OF 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY IS THUS:

       7up plc was introduced by a Lebanese called Mr. Mchammed Elkhahit, as a business man, he came to Nigeria in 1926 and trade on household and kitchen utensils. He also owned later one of the biggest transporting company in West Africa. He went into soft drink business as a kind of expansion in 1959, and subsequently introduced 7up first bottling company now plc.

       The location of the 7up first plant was at Ijora in Lagos now the head quarter where the first bottle of 7up was produced in 1960. Also on day, a total of fourteen crates were produced.

The Ibadan, Ikeja, Kano, Kaduna and Aba plant were opened between 1980 till 1989. also till date more plants have been opened across the country including many depots.

Due to the location of their depots act many places in the country, it was very easy for them with the help of their good marketing strategies to enhance distribution across the country penetrating the areas where their products were not available.

       Finally, the company’s brands of soft drinks include 7up, Pepsi cola, Miranda Orange. Miranda Soda, Miranda fruity, teen lemon, and maintain dew which was just introduced.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Most organizes, firms, industries or companies find it difficult to increase their market share in a competitive economy and as such the researcher wants to empirically investigate the efficiency of market segmentation as a tool for achieving increased market share

1.3OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

Based on the background of the study, the major objectives market share.

1.    To determine the efficiency of market segmentation in increasing market share.

2.    To determine the usefulness of market segmentation to a company.

3.    To determine the significance of market share

4.    To differentiate the different levels of market segmentation

5.    To ascertain the requirements of market segmentation.

6.    To find the extent to which organization adopt market segmentation.

7.    To make necessary recommendation and suggestions to the possible solution of the problems of market segmentation

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

This study aims at giving answer to some of te questions below:

1.   Can segmentation help to achieve an organization goal?

2.   Is market segmentation an efficiency toll of achieving an increased market share?

3.   In competitive economy, can market share determine the supremacy of organization?

4.   Could the research on segmentation of the market increase the standard of the organization?

5.   Do you think that market segmentation has an effect on organization revenue?

1.5THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This work exports thee efficiency, effectiveness and usefulness of market segmentation in the increasing of the market share of a company and as such will be of immense benefit to this group.

A.    THE RESEARCHER: It will assist him in pointing out the importance of market segmentation which is derived from the desire to satisfy the interest of the consumer with a profit.

B.    7UP BOTTLING COMPANY PLC: It will assist them to know that the effect of marketing segmentation in the market share increment is the first phase of strategic planning.

C.    SOCIETY: The study of market segmentation will help the larger society in a competitive economy, since market share in very important to economy.

1.6THE SCOPE OF STUDY

The range of his is directed towards the efficiency of  market segmentation to increasing market share in 7up bottling company plc. Although, the researcher tends to narrow the research to 7upo bottling in Aba.

1.7LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher was confronted with the following constant in the cause of this enquires.

1.   Time factor due to the time frame under which the study must be completed, there was no much time to visit most of the department of Nigeria breweries plc for interview as a result of this the coverage is the limited.

2.   Finance for the lack of finance the research was unable to carry out the research to its satisfaction.

3.   Human factors the manager in marketing department of Nigeria breweries plc who was suppose to give me the necessary information needed was always out for one assignment or the other.

1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS:

a.     MARKMET:-[he actual and for potential buyers of a product or service. It is an aggregate of a people who have needs for products or services, the ability, wittiness and purchasing power of such product/service.

b.     SEGMENTATION:-The process of dividing a heterogeneous market into homogenous units. It is also the identification of portions of the market that are different from one other.

c.     HETEROGENOUS:- This is when something is made of different kinds, like we have different kinds of market.

d.     HOMOGENOUS:- This is a segment of the total market which is made up of individual with the same set of needs of specific product class.

MARKET SEMENTATION AS AN EFFICIENT TOOL OF ACHIEVING INCREASED MARKET SHARE

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMS INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

The study examined sales promotion as a persuasive activity hence is the direct and indirect communication used by firms to influence present and potential customers fro the purpose of making sales. This study was in the main time, exploratory and descriptive. Data were collected on source specific objective adopted for the resources. Data collection method employed primary sources eg personal interviews and questionnaire and secondary data example books, newspaper and so on. These data were analyzed with some simple statistical looks such as percentage tables and significant level. The study also considered whether ‘advertising medium message to the target audience among others. It was known that the philosophy of the company mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria limited Aba promotion is not different from what other marketing

• companies have been practicing. Sales promotion has great influence in the buying behaviour of customers. Most industries in Nigeria have riot yet embraced full promotional consciousness. Effective sales promotion could help companies to survive the stifle competition in business, operation.

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0.INTRODUCTION

It has been discovered that sales promotion as one of promotional tools, it is very important to mobile phone industries such as MTN Uyo.

       This project/research work evaluate the impact of sales promotion on the choice and use of mobile phone times when sales promotion is carried out.

       This research work will be benefit to the firm in study (MTN) customers and public at large. This is because, at the end at this research work and interested person or the firm will see how sales promotion affect the sales of mobile phone times.

       The research himself is of great interest is the study because of the prevailing sales promotion going or the communication sector.

1.1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This has to do with the situation analysis of the firm in question via MTN Uyo. It is also known as SWOT analysis which, constitutes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of the firm. Therefore, the research want to find out the relationship between sales promotion and the service of MTN UYO.

       MTN Uyo has been trying in the area of sales promotion and this has marked up the sales of MTN Lines (SIM PACK). But the researcher observes that MTN Uyo should continuously embark on sales promotion in order to retain its world market share.

       In the same vein, it have been observed that other mobile phone industries such as Celtel and Globalcom are up and coming in the area of sales promotion.

This means that there is shift competition existing in the market of mobile phones lines. It was also the adventure of sale promotional campaign that has made the former monopolist (NITEL) in communication to lose its market share.

       MTN Uyo should identify new market opportunity by studying the buying behaviour and needs of consumer on coming up with the necessary sales promotion. In achieving this goals, such question should be administered, who are the customers, what do the want; how and where do they want it, who are the potential and buyer; why are they not ready to buy; how much will they want to buy and at what profit to the firm.

       A question arose, whether advertising have not achieved the aim of increased sales in MTN lines (SIM PACK). The answer tot his is (not even extent). Advertising was pivotal way of making increased sales but nowadays it doesn’t work like sales promotion.

       Little wonder why Stanton (1991) defined sales promotion as activities other than personal selling, advertising, publicity that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as displays, shows, exhibitions and demonstration.

       The market of MTN lines (SIM PACK) constitutes the public at large with dynamic nature. It becomes necessary to embark on sales promotion incentives.

       One may ask how far sales promotion can go to ensure an increased sale of mobile phone lines. It is therefore n the course of answering this question that prompted the researcher to embark on this research work.

1.2.STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The pivotal aim of very research work is to solve problems deleting to the study. There are variable that affect the full administration of sales promotion in this mobile phone industry (MTN) such variable are programme timing, programme design appreciation of sale promotion by customers and the channel of reaching the target market with sales promotional programmes.

       One may ask why Nitel is at the of communication today. It is because of the application of marketing concept and the affore-mentioned sales promotional activities.

       Therefore, the research observes the problems as follows:

i.            Lack of sales promoting programme timing.

ii.           Inadequacy of formulating programme design stragies which is general towards achieving a positive response from customer during sales promotional campaign

iii.         Valueless and unapplication of sales promotion incentives by customers.

The above problems will be investigated by the researcher so as to proffer solutions to them at end of this research work.

1.3.STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE

The general research objective is to evaluate the impact of sales promotion on the sales of mobile phone lines.

       The study in specific term seeks to;

Find out the extend customer appreciate the value incentives use in sales promotion campaigns.

Investigate the effect of sales programme timing on the success of sales promotional programmes and strategies in MTN.

Measure the effect of programme design on the achievement of the objectives of sales promotional campaigns.

Identify the factors limiting against the application of sales promotion as a method pf increasing customer patronage.

Suggestion and recommend how best to apply sales promotional programmes

1.4.RESREACH QUESTION

This is the objective of the study produce in question from the following questions have been found relevant by the researcher as a tool of achieving of this research work. They are;

i.            What is the relationship between effective sales promotional programme and increase in sales volume in the mobile phone industry (MTN)?

ii.           What is the relationship between programme design and sales promotion campaign objective attainment?

iii.         What is the extent to which customers appreciate and value sales promotion incentives of what effect are the channel used to reach the customer on the sales promotional programme?

1.5.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Significance from it denotation is the importance of the study.t his research will be of benefit to the following set of people:

i.            Users/Customers/ Market of GSM Phone

ii.           Operators / mobile phone industry

iii.         The public

It is the customers that benefit most in the sales promotion. This is because it reduce the price of MTN lines, considering the incentives associating sales promotion.

       To the MTN industry, it is of great important , the organization will have to know the following; timing of sales promotion programme, effectiveness of continuous sales promotion, designing of promotional campaigns.

       Since communication have take a wide space in our society anything the society.

1.6.LIMITATION OF STUDY

This is concerned with the problem encountered in this research work. The problems are:

Time: the time given to the researcher to embark on this study starting from the day of approval wasn’t enough because as a student in ND II Marketing, I have yet another eleven courses to study.

Finance: this research work was hampered by financial problem such as typing, cost of transportation.

Response: some of the respondent view couldn’t respond positively. Other failed to return their questionnaire to the researcher because of one reason or the other.

1.7.DEFINITION OF TERM

Under this heading, terms used in the research work writing will be explained briefly

SWOT: this means strength, weakness, opportunity and threat. It is a feature of situation analysis.

Market share: the percentages of customers a firm has in the total market.

Potential buyers: those that have not started buying the product of a firm.

NITEL: Nigerian Telecommunication

INCENTIVE: something that is given to someone (customer) that encourage him to do something (buy).

Respondent: person who answers question

Monopolist: the only producer and seller of a product

Marketing Concept: a concept that based on customer orientation. It is a concept that makes consumer the king.

Rebate: an amount of money deduct from the cost of something.

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMS INDUSTRY

THE RELEVANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS

ABSTRACT

The research work examines the relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm and to achieve the purpose. Past contributions and the opinions at experts were reviewed. The research design adopted in carrying out this research work is quas – experimental design and the primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaire from ten (10) respondents draw from three small scale firm in Owerri. The data was subsequently analyzed using frequency table and percentages via analysis of variance solution software package (SPSS). After critically analyzing the data, the following were the findings that there is a significant relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm and secondly moderating factors do interfere in the relationship between marketing firms and recommendations were made, that firm should be enlightened on the relevance of marketing research and how it attest marketing performance positively, adapt in order to have an edge over technological tools to suit current market situation. The relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm (A case study of some selected manufacturing firm in Owerri Metropolis).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Marketing research involves conducting report to support marketing activities and the statistical interpretation of data into information. This information is then used by managers to plan marketing activities, gauge the nature of firm marketing environment and attain information from supplier. Marketing researchers uses statistical method such as qualitative research, quantitative research, hypothesis test chi- squared test, linear regression, correlation, frequency distribution etc to interpreter their findings and convert data into information.

The marketing research process spans a number of stages including the definition of problem development of research plan, collection and interpretation of data and disseminating information formally in the form of a report. The task of marketing research is to provide management with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid and current information.

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian economy for long has been characterized with little wonder, Nigeria is often known as a reseller market. The few manufacturing firm still operating are either muiti-national cooperation or government establishment. This scenario has adversely affected the Nigeria economy to an extend. It has become dumping ground for other countries.

Although a lot of economics reform programms were initiated in Nigeria to make the manufacturing industry vibrant and allow infant industries to grow, such programms were never sustained to the later due to political instability and mismanagement of funds by stakeholders. Nevertheless, the recent programmes of the federal government has given hope to the manufacturing firms or industry as small and medium scale manufacturing firm are gradually emerging everywhere.

However, due to mildness and inexperience of the infant manufacturing firm, there has been a continuous cry of out consumers of low quality products and service. The major reason for this poor performance has been attributed to the lack of marketing research by large cooperation in Nigeria.

Marketing research plays a vital role in the success of every business entity. Expect believe that marketing research is the main pilot of commercialization.

Kotler (200) defined marketing research as the systematic and objective identification, collection and analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Armstrong (2004) defined marketing research as the function that links the marketer to the consumer and the public through information. He further said that marketing research is used to define and identify marketing opportunities and problems to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance and to improve understanding of the marketing process from the above definition of marketing research, it is assumed that marketing research is a discipline approach to problem and prospect of ensuring efficiency and portability in any firm.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

With the recent proliferation of small and medium scale enterprises in major cities Nigeria is sure to become an industrialized economy in the next decades. If these enterprise are given the necessary support (security, fund, expertise, conducive environment and industry protection) by the government.

Nevertheless, the manufacturing industry just as the financial sector has suffered enough economic crisis and the result is evident in the quality of service provided by firms in this sector. In spite of the presence of  regulatory such as Nigeria standard organization (NSO), National agency for food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) and consumerist the quality of products and service rendered by manufacturers is on the decline. This decline is on the evidence of the negligence of firms to properly determine and fill in the need and wants of consumers.

This shows that marketing research has not this been properly embraced in this industry or by manufactures despite valuable studies and write up of experts, all shows that the contribution/benefits of marketing research to the success of business organization is immense.

In fact, most managers and elite nurse are of the note that marketing research have no value in developing nation like Nigeria, and that has been one major reason for this negligence.

As a result, this study was embarked upon to investigate the extend of relationship between  marketing research and the service level delivered by small and medium scale manufacturing firm in Imo State.

1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study has its major purpose of investigating the extend of investigating the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm. The study also examines the following specific objectives.

1.       Whether marketing research is conducting in the manufacturing industry.

2.       The extend to which marketing research is conducted.

3.       The extend of qualification of the personnel.

4.       The extend to which marketing research tools (Research plan, data collection, and analysis instrument) are validated.

5.       How frequently is marketing research conducted by manufactures?

6.       The extend to which manufactures (management) implement their research findings.

7.       Whether marketing research contributes significantly to the performance / growth of the manufacturing industry.

8.       How frequently are the marketing research personnel exposed to exposed to training and motivation.

9.       Whether moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and service level desired by manufacturers

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

1.    What is the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firms in Imo State?

2.    Do small scales firm carry out marketing research?

3.    How frequently is marketing research carried out by manufacturers?

4.    To what extend do manufacturers validate their marketing research tools before conducting a research

5.    To what extend do manufacturers execute the findings of a research study?

6.    Does marketing research contribute significantly to the performance of the manufacturing industry in Imo State?

7.    Do moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm?

1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has it’s main significance to enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm among which are the benefit derived by the sponsoring companies and it’s customers when marketing research is properly used.

Secondly, it helps the firm to make better marketing decisions, which inturns results in product and services that better meets the need of the consumers. Marketing research also provides the information that links marketer with their customers, and the background needed to make effective decision on a wide range of issues.

Also marketing research is very vital in the aspect of employment opportunities. That is it service as a means of employment opportunities there by improving or enhancing the economic stand of the country.

Finally, through marketing research, companies learn more about consumers; need result in more resulting products and services.

1.6SCPOE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The research works covers the goal, strategies and implementation of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm.

The research work encountered some short coming in trying to get some necessary information and materials for successful completion some of which are.

Time Constraint: the time that was given for the research work was not sufficient enough for a through work to be carried out.

Financial Constraint: the short of funds limited the researcher to only three small manufacturing firms in Owerri metropolis and also restriction to printing and administrating questions to selected few among which are the wholesaler and customers of the firm ORANISATIONAL BUREAUCRACY

THE EFFORTS TO COLLECT ALL THE NEEDED DATA FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF THE SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRM IN Owerri metropolis was not very easy because of their official protocol and organizational bureaucracy.

1.7OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marketing Research: This is a systematic and formal process of obtaining, collating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the findings relevant to specific marketing problems.

Marketing: It is the human activity which involves identifying and satisfying human wants and needs through the exchange process.

Research: This is a systematic orderly service for solution to a problem. It is finding out about something so as to sort out   solution.

Marketing Research: It is the study on itself in a particular service advertisement to determine it’s effectiveness on a target audience.

SMALL SCALE ORGANISATION

It is an organist or acting on it’s belief on a particular business that can be started with less that 100 employee and the minimum of N750,000 and the maximum of N500,000

Service: it is anything of benefit that one party can offer to another, it is essentially intangible and does not involve in the ownership of anything.

Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a marketing for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can satisfy a need or want.

Price: It is one of the marketing mix (4p’s) this is the value agreed upon by the members in the exchange  process. It is the means that allow product or service to get value in the eyes of both the buyers and the sellers.

Satisfaction: Generic belief or pleasures someone derives from consuming a given product or service.

Manufacturing Sector: These are segments of the economy that engages in the production and distribution of goods for human consumption.

Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is a moderation techniques in which participant are asked to place the names of product or services on a grid. It also means how item are ground on diagram to stimulate discussion or use.

THE RELEVANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS

AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

            No branch of journalism requires so much knowledge and skill than picture reporting. The industrial revolution played a significant role in the development of press photography according to (Gelnshain, 2002), the first book with lithographic illustration (pictures) appeared in 1840. The photographs were selected on the basis of the criteria of in testing subjects, which stabilizes presentation. After this pioneering indeed, two publications, London labour and the London poor, appeared in British critical study.  the use of photographs as a graphical presentation started with books, according to peter (2009.p,6) the application of this experience in periodical came; surprisingly fast in May, 1842. This was when Herbet Ingram founded the famous illustrated London news. The publication relied heavily on pictorial information.

            According to Anderson (2014.p,140) Photojournalism is an arm of journalism that uses images to tell stories and report events. It is different from other forms of photography such as commercial, Architecture and industrial photography. This could be seen in its adherence to certain journalism norms like News, Timeliness Objectivity, fairness and accurate representation of the events.

            Photojournalism involves the use of camera to record events as they happen. Like a news reporter, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she writes with camera and disseminates news events through images. Photojournalists use pictures to tell stories interpret event and communicate their feelings about the society as Journalists hoping for a better society (Harding, 2012).

            The advent of photographs mechanically printed into newspapers opened up market for press photography. Pictures were mostly taken for their action and content rather than any aesthetic consideration. Today, they are used in the newspapers for different reasons. The other factor was the introduction, by George Eastman, of small cameras in use at that time. Thus, convenient cameras gave photojournalists the freedom to record news events easily and quickly. The technological advancement enabled them to also take pictures which were previously impossible to take such as night and moving images.  One of the foremost photojournalist was a Frenchman, Henri Cartier –Bresson, who from 1930 to 2004 worked to document what he called the “decisive moment”. Cartier-Bresson believed that the dynamics in any given situation eventually reach a peak, at which a photographer will capture the most powerful image possible.

            Photojournalists have become visual interpreters, using their cameras and knowledge to bring readers a feeling of what an event was really like. Meanwhile, in the past, the photojournalist depended on artists to draw replicas of his photograph, which was later reproduced by an engraver into a Zinc plate, (Aliagan, 2006). The plate was then printed on a Hoe rotary press. Due to the long process, several days passed before these line-drawn renderings of photographs appeared on the front-page of the newspaper.

            The growth of photography and photojournalism can be traced to two major factors that occurred near the end of the 19th century. The first is the technical innovation. This includes the invention of roll film, smaller cameras, faster lens and the perfection of the half tone process of printing photographs as a series of light and dark dots which allowed newspaper publishers to reproduce photographs quickly and inexpensively.

            Photographs in Journalism inform, educate and enlighten readers about current issues and also reflect on the past as well. Photographs in Newspaper enhance the credibility of the stories. As they depict reality, they also furnish evidence to show the authenticity of a news story or give proof of an event that occurred. Its aesthetic values enable a photograph to serve as a tool to attract reader’s attention and break the monotony of news content. Thus, photographs enhance and beautify the pages of a newspaper (Gervais, 2005). Beyond the active construction in the creation of the image in front of the camera, photo editing in programs like Adobe Photoshop are almost roundly rejected by ethics in photojournalism. This issue can be debated, but standard photo post-production elements such as smoothing out wrinkles on a person’s face, enhancing the colors of a location, or changing the contrast could all be considered clear violations of ethics in photojournalism. There have been many major cases in recent years of photojournalists being let go from major publications for the most minor alterations during photo editing. An example of this could be a color alteration to a photo where the sky color could be changed. This change in sky color could indicate or diminish the appearance of pollution, it could change the interpretation of the season, and it could even shift the perspective of the subjects Bose, (2002). All of these changes would be the anti-thesis of the structure of the photojournalist project and would violate it on a critical level. Photo editing can be used in certain situations, but it should remain incredibly minor if it wants to fit the strict ethical standards that have been associated with photojournalism.

            A photograph in Newspaper speaks more than a thousand words. No formal education is required to understand a picture. Photographs are therefore able to break through literacy barrier to effectively communicate a message. It is a universal language.

            Cartoons are non verbal graphic communication channels that express the opinions, views and findings of a media organization. They are used to advance an opinion in funny ways and are often based on current, burning and topical issues. They are used basically to educate, inform and entertain the audience by the print media (Emi, 2008).

            Also, the need for investigative journalism has placed emphasis on the watchdog role of newspaper due to the fact that there are two sides of human namely: the godly and the animalistic side of human to behave in good manners but the animalistic side of the human is the evil side which can be seen in different wrong doings or atrocities of man.

            It also shows the human urge to dominate, satisfy base instincts of huger, wealth acquisition and their evil or erotic desires. Human beings are expected to be rational but their rationality cannot always guarantee good conduct because most times, the animalistic tendencies in them prevail. Hence the needs for mass media to expose evil and t bring perpetrators to justice so that the human societies do not become the animal kingdom and full of evil.

            There is also the need to check the excesses of the powerful or privileged people against the less privileged ones to hold rulers accountable to their people to bring about social reforms to expose crime and other wrong doings and to act as voice for the voiceless etc. (Aina 2001).

            Also, the belief in the saying that Nigeria is one of the most corrupt nation of the world is not an exaggeration. International organizations have consistently testified to this undeniable fact to confirm the claims of these organizations, the country has witnessed different types of corrupt practices. This must have baffled the past regime led by chief Olusegun Obasajo so much that he thought it is necessary to establish organizations that could fight corrupt practices among citizens two of these organization are independent corrupt practice commission (ICPC) and the Economic and Financial crimes commission (EECC). After operating for few years, many have come to describe these as an organization of toothless bulldog.

            The only organizations that Nigerians can fall back on or depends on, is the press which has been battling corruption with its in-depth news reporting opinion, comments, editorial, editorial cartoon etc.

            Watson, (2008) Says that the media is prominent among the public arbiters for our behavior. Many have also found cartoons on newspaper to be equally up to the task of acting as the society watchdog. This is what the researcher hopes to answer.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            The study will examine the effects and significance of crime illustration in enhancing the role of newspaper cartoons as watchdog in the society.

            It is to ascertain the impact of comic illustration on readers and the level to which cartoons have acted as watchdog of the society.

AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED LIBRARY OFFENSE DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

A library is an institution of knowledge acquisition and learning; it provides invaluable serves to students, information server and to a wider local community. Several libraries have suffered failure as a result of inadequate management and incapacitations in handling sensitive information as regards members of the library. 

This research therefore, aimed at developing a library offence documentation system, which will help to keep records of library offenders.

In the course of the development of this new system, the current system was analytically and critically studied or assessed and thus the identified strengths and weaknesses were highlighted and a new system was designed for the weakness.

The present system was analyzed using a standard procedure recognized worldwide for such purpose and this is called Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM).  PHP (Hypertext pre-processor)was used to code the program modules developed for the system using some computer aided design tools.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. GENERAL OVERVIEW

1.1     INTRODUCTION

A library is a Latin word “liber” means book is an organized & collection of information resources made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to materials, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space. Globally library is an emerging knowledge-based society of the twenty first century because people need information to sustain their growth development, and intellectual capital investments knowledge and information have become wealth generators which make library a vital tool since it is repositories of reference resource, stacked with books and other information dissembling sources. A library is an institution of knowledge acquisition and learning; it provides invaluable serves to students, information server and to a wider local community (Ugah, 2007).  

  1. As earlier stated in section 1.0 A library is an organized collection of sources of information and similar resource, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material and, maybe a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. (Casson&Lionel, 2002). A library’s collection can include books, periodicals, newspaper, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, document, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs,Blu- ray Discs, e-data based and other formats. (Allan;1984). A library is organized for use and maintained by public body, an institution, a corporation or a private individual public and institutional collection and service may be intended for use by people who choose not to –or cannot afford to purchase extensive collections themselves, who need material’s. (Rany, 2013). In addition to proving materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information needs for libraries by providing quiets areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the internet modem libraries are increasingly Bing redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information electronically. There are different types of libraries depending on the information that are retrievable. There, user accessibility of the information. These factor had led to the classification of the library into several categories including, national library which serve as a national repository of information, researcher library, reference library which does not lend books or any other information material and academic library. (Nicos& John,1978). This research Focusing on academic library, since it often serve  number of services to students to provide student necessary tools needed for their  succeed in their programs.(Casson,2002) These workshops may include help with citations; effectives search techniques journal database, and electronics citation software. (casson, 2002) Since library provides service to different individuals laws/rules of the library are formulated, designed to preserve the material and the activities in the library both for the librarians and the user to have accessed to the information needs. The establishment of these rules & regulation are variably achieved by conducting logical evaluations by seeking the opinions from the librarians and the user to device an appropriate sanction for offender.  Although it has been looked at or defined variously this aspect of library management can as well be computerized to meet the evolving nature of the library service. We live in an information age, and libraries are expected to use information and communication technologies (ICT) to provide information more expeditiously and exhaustively to their user than easer provided. Computerized of library “housekeeping” operations is an important activity in this context. “Automation” when used in a library or similar environment, refers to the computerization of activities (Sadanandanshamin, 2008).
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED LIBRARY OFFENSE DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM