ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT
Cyanide is known to be one of the most toxic substances present in a wide variety of food materials that are consumed by animals.
One of the cyanide detoxifying enzymes is 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Indeed, recent studies have clearly shown that 3-MST is involved in the detoxification of cyanide.
Rhinoceros (Oryctes rhinoceros) larva feeds on dead, decayed and living plants, wood and palm. Plants are known to contain cyanide as a defence mechanism for intruding/pesting organisms. Thus, for rhinoceros larva to be able to live on plants, it must have possessed a cyanide-detoxifying enzyme.
3-MST, a cyanide-detoxifying enzyme was purified from Rhinoceros (Oryctes rhinoceros) larva in this work.
The 3-MST enzyme was isolated from the gut of Oryctes rhinoceros larvae and purified using Ammonium Sulphate Precipitation, Bio-Gel-P-100 Gel Filtration Chromatography and Reactive Blue-2-Agarose Affinity chromatography.
The specific activity of the enzyme was 0.22U/mg.
The presence of this enzyme could be exploited by including it in the diet of animals which would serve as a source of protein and 3-MST. Perhaps, these rhinoceros larva could be introduced on farmland with contaminated soil whereby they will process the dead roots and plants into soil thereby providing more space and manure for plants to grow healthy.

 

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ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE FROM THE GUT OF RHINOCEROS LARVA (Oryctes rhinoceros).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF AFANG LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF AFANG LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Nanoscience has been the subject of substantial research in recent years. It has been explored by researchers in various fields of science and technology (Kholoud et al. 2010). The novel properties of NPs have been exploited in a wide range of potential applications such as in medicine, cosmetics, renewable energies, environmental remediation, biomedical devices (Quang Huy, 2013), electronics, optics, organic catalysis, vector control, sensor, etc., have drawn extensive attention to this field of study (Mousavand et al. 2007). Among the metals, silver nanoparticles have shown potential applications in various fields such as the environment, bio-medicine, catalysis, optics and electronics (Rao et al., 2000). Silver nanoparticles are mostly smaller than 100 nm and consist about 20–15,000 silver atoms. In its nanoscale form, silver exhibits unique physicochemical and biological activities. This has made them useful as sensor, vector control, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antiplasmodial agents, catalysts, among others (Elemike et al. 2014; Vinod et al. 2014; Kathiravan et al. 2014; Saraschandra and Sivakumar 2014; Namita and Soam 2014).

Concerted effort has been made to synthesize diverse range of silver nanoparticles varying in size, geometry, and morphology because of their potential applications, particularly in electronics (P. V. Kamat, 2002), electrochemical sensing (L. M. Liz-Marzán, 2006), catalysis (F. Zhang, Y. Pi et al., 2007), and antimicrobial properties (T. Sakai et al., 2006). The size, geometry, dispersion and stability often determine the suitability of the nanoparticles for certain applications. Synthesis may involve physical means such as ultraviolet light, microwaves, photo-reduction, or chemical reduction using hydrazine, ascorbic acid, sodium borohydride, glucose, and organic stabilizers or biological means using plant extract, microorganism or plant sap. Several physical and chemical methods have been used to synthesize and stabilize silver nanoparticles (Senapati et al., 2005, Klaus-Joerger et al., 2001). The most popular chemical approaches, including chemical reduction using a variety of organic and inorganic reducing agents, electrochemical techniques, physicochemical reduction, and radiolysis are widely used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Although these means are fast and easy, they are either expensive or toxic particularly the chemical method and may lead to non eco-friendly byproducts thus the need for environmental, nontoxic synthetic protocols for nanoparticles synthesis. In the global efforts to reduce generated hazardous waste,

 

 

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ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF AFANG LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANALYSIS OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE (3-MST).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANALYSIS OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE (3-MST).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTERONE

1.0.         INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

 

1.1.         INTRODUCTION

One of the major metabolic enzymes that have gained so much interest of scientists is 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). This enzyme occurs widely in nature (Bordo, 2002 and Jarabak, 1981).

It has been reported in several organisms ranging from humans to rats, fishes and insects. It is a mitochondrial enzyme which has been concerned in the detoxification of cyanide, a potent toxin of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (Nelson et al., 2000). Among the several metabolic enzymes that carry out xenobiotic detoxification, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase is of utmost importance.

3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase functions in the detoxifications of cyanide; mediation of sulfur ion transfer to cyanide or to other thiol compounds.(Vandenet al., 1967).It is also required for the biosynthesis of thiosulfate. In combination with cysteine aminotransferase, it contributes to the catabolism of cysteine and it is important in generating hydrogen sulphide in the brain, retina and vascular endothelial cells (Shibuyaet al., 2009). It also acquired different functions such as a redox regulation (maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis) and defense against oxidative stress, in the atmosphere under oxidizing conditionsNagaharaet al (2005).

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an important synaptic modulator, signalling molecule, smooth muscle contractor and neuroprotectant (Hosokiet al., 1997). Its production by the 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and cysteine aminotransferase pathways is regulated by calcium ions (Hosokiet al., 1997).

Organisms that are exposed to cyanide poisoning usually have this enzyme in them. This could be in food as in the cyanogenicglucosides being consumed. It has been studied from variety of sources, which include bacteria, yeasts, plants, and animals (Marcus Wischik, 1998).

Cyanide could be released into the bark of trees as a defence mechanism. There are array of defensive compounds that make their parts (leaves, flowers, stems, roots and fruits) distasteful or poisonous to predators. In response, however, the animals that feed on them have evolved over successive generations a range of measures to overcome these compounds and can eat the plant safely. The tree trunk offers a clear example of the variety of defences available to plants (Marcus Wischik, 1998).

Oryctes rhinoceros larva is one of the organisms that are also exposed to cyanide toxicity because of the environment they are found.

1.2.         3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE

3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (EC. 2.8.1.2), is a member of the group, Sulfurtransferases (EC 2.8.1.1 – 5), which are widely distributed enzymes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes (Bordoand Bork, 2002).

3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase is an enzyme that is part of the cysteine catabolic pathway. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion 3-mercaptopyruvate to pyruvate and H2S (Shibuya et al., 2009). The deficiency of this enzyme will result in elevated urine concentrations of 3-mercaptopyruvate as well as of 3-mercaptolactate, both in the form of disulfides with cysteine(Crawhallet al., 1969). It catalyzes the chemical reaction:

 

 

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ANALYSIS OF 3-MERCAPTOPYRUVATE SULFURTRANSFERASE (3-MST).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

 

PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

1.1   Background study

   Packagingvusing plasticvmaterialsvhas rapidly increasedvin recent times. Its vusevcovers a wide area of applicationvfromvautomobile parts, food, drinks, water, snacks, cloths, fresh and sea foods, vfarm products, vmedicals and pharmaceuticals, to mention but a few. The use of such bombasticvamount of schematicvplastics and itsvadvantage overvother packaging materialsvis due tovits diversevandvadvancevpropertiesvofvlongevity.Thevproperties include resistance tovchemicalvreaction, vthermal strength, mechanical and its tensile strength, vespeciallyvenzymaticvreactions (Ezeoha and Ezenwanne, 2013.).

For example it willvtake avveryvlongvtimevsay avhundredvyears to degradevjustva piece of plastic film (polyethene) used to package snacks (gala) at standard environmental conditions. vBasically, two challenges have been cited with the of conventional polyethene usevits  dependence  on vpetroleum  and  the  problem vof  waste  disposal.  Most  of  today’s  conventionalvsynthetic  polymers vare  producedvfromvpetrochemicals  that vare  not  biodegradable.  Thesevstable vpolymers  are  a  significant vsourcevof venvironmental  pollution, vharming vorganic  naturevwhen vthey  are  dispersedvin  thevenvironment, changes thevcarbon dioxide cycle, problemvassociatedvwith increasedvtoxic emission. The sources of synthetic polymersvsuch as fossilvfuel and gas arevnow stimulated by environmental concerns. Scientists arevresearchingvdifferentvmethods ofvimprovingvplastics thatvcanvbevusedvmorevefficientlyvsuchvthat they could be recycled, vreused and to possiblyvdegradevafter use.

Alternationvisvtowardsvgreenervagriculturalvsources,   vwhich valsovwouldvlead   vto    the    reduction of CO2emissions (Narayan, 2001). According to the Biodegradable    ProductsvInstitutev (BPI), avbiodegradable plastics isvone in which degradation    results from    the vactionvofvnaturallyvoccurring   vmicro-organismsvsuch as bacteria, vfungi or algae. Degradablevplastics are classified byvAmericanvSociety forvTesting and Materials    (ASTM) into four these are:-

(1) Photodegradablevplastics: Degradation of the plastic results from natural daylight.

(2) Oxidativevdegradable plastics: A degradation of plastics as a result of oxidation.

(3) hydrolytically degradable plastics: – The degradability resultsvfromvhydrolysis, vand

(4) BiodegradablevPlastics: – Degradablevplastics invwhich there isvbreakdown of long chain polymervmoleculevinto smaller or shorter lengths. It undergoes oxidationvwhich is triggered by heat, ultraviolent light (UVlight), and mechanical stress. Itvoccurs in thevpresencevof moisture and actions from naturallyvoccurringvmicroorganismsvsuch asvbacterial, fungi and algae. (ASTM Standards, 1998)

Thevvariousvdegradablevplastics definitions classified above offers the onlyvproducts whichvarevnaturallyvdegradable. Starch isvbeenvdiscoveredvamongst all biopolymers as a high potentialvmaterial for biodegrablevfilms. Starchvconsists of two types of polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectinvdepending on the sucrose (10-20%) amylase and (80-90%) amylopectin. The hydrophlicity ofvstarch canvbe used tovincrease the biodegrability of starch-basedvplastics. Amylosevis avlinearvmolecule with a fewvbranches, whereasvamylopectinvis avhighlyvbranchedvmolecule. Therefore, vamylosevcontentvis an importantvfactor to biodegrable plastic filmvstrength. Branchedvstructure of amylopectin generallyvleads to filmvwith lowvmechanical properties. To improve thevflexibilityvof plastics, plasticizers arevadded tovreduce internalvhydrogen bondvbetweenvpolymer chainsvwhile increasing molecular space. The mostvcommonly used starchvplasticizers are polyols, sorbitol and glycerol. Thevkey emphasisvin biodegrability is thatvbiopolymer materialsvbreakdownvintovsmaller compounds, either chemically or byvorganisms sooner than synthetic plastics (Bastioli, 2005.). Biodegradablevpackagingvmaterials are materials that degrades back tovthe earth surfacevharmlessly when disposed. This help largely in reducingvthe amount of packaging materialsvthat goes back into landfills andvfurthermore, saves energy, as the biodegrable route requires little or novexternal source of energy its endothermic.

 

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PRODUCTION OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC FILMS FROM CASSAVA STARCH USED IN FOOD PACKAGING, USING VARIOUS ADDITIVES AND PLASTICIZERS.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

 

PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT
Oil extracted from African star apple by continuous extraction process using soxhlet apparatus was subjected to physico chemical and fatty acid profile analysis. Results obtained show that the acid value, lodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, free fatty acid, refractive index, melting point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and specific gravity are 30.67mg/g, 20.67mg/g, 5.00mg/g, 48.00mg/g, 0.87%, 0.96, 1.47, 19.00OC, 1.03, 122.00OC, 156.00OC, and 180.00OC respectively. All these values confirm that African star apple oil is suitable for human consumption as well as for industrial uses which compared favourably with the value obtained in palm oil, groundnut oil as well as cotton seed oil (Adewusi, 1997). In term of fatty acid profile African star apple oil contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids 85% oleic acid 7% and 6% of linoleic and linolenic respectively while saturated fatty acid such as arachidoic, lauric were recorded with maximum value of 17% recorded for arachidoic and lauric. Therefore African star apple oil can be described as oil that has more unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids which made it suitable for human consumption as it prevent low density lipoprotein which is a precursor of cholesterol that results into heart attack and hypertension

 

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PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

THE USE OF BITTER LEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

THE USE OF BITTER LEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINAEXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT
Locally brewed beer (sorghum beer) is an indigenous alcohol average. It is produced mainly from sorghum grain (Sorghum vulgare ) and the process of brewing involves malting, mashing, souring, fermentation and packaging. Locally brewed beer without hops has a short shelf-life. The aqueous extract of a tropical plant, bitter-leaf was used as the hop .Two type of drink were produced, one with hops and another without hops. Chemical analyses were carried out on both drinks, which gave a significant (p≤0.05) difference. Sorghum beer with hops has a total acidity of 0.562±0.03, fixed acidity of 0.203±0.001, Volatile acidity 0.360±0.02, PH 3.93, specific gravity 1.042±0.003, total dissolved solids 1.12×105ppm, total suspended solids 1.65×105ppm, ethanol content of 3.43±0.03 respectively. While sorghum beer without hops has a total acidity of 0.652 ±0.002, fixed acidity of  0.176±0.002, volatile acidity of 0.476±0.03, PH of 3.50 specific gravity of 1.021±0.003,  total dissolved solid of 1.15×105ppm, total suspended solids of 1.5×105ppm and an ethanol content  of 3.65±0.02. The microbial count for sorghum beer with hop had no growth of E.coli, streptococcus and staphylococcus but aspergillus was present from the 4th day and heaviest on the 8th day. While the drink without hop had growth of staphylococcus and aspergillus which was seen from the 2nd day and heaviest on the 4th day but E.coli and streptococcus was absent. From the results, the drink with hops could keep for a longer period of time than the other drink without hops. Thus, the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalinacould extend the shelf-life of locally brewed sorghum beer.

 

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THE USE OF BITTER LEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINAEXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF-LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED SORGHUM BEER.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A PROJECT RESEARCH INTO SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A PROJECT RESEARCH INTO SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT 
Calcium is the most important mineral in the body. The body needs calcium for normal functioning of nerves and muscles including the most important muscles of all which is the heart. Calcium is also important for healthy bones and teeth. The amount of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled by the body’s hormonal systems. The body gets calcium from diary products, some vegetables (such as broccoli), and some fortified foods. Calcium can also be obtained from taken pills containing calcium. Most of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and only small amount is found in the blood (serum). Calcium is maintained within a fairly narrow range from 8.5 to 10.5mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3meq/l or 2.2 to 2.7mmol/l). The estimation of serum calcium level is fraught with possible errors. Several means of contamination might lead to false elevations of serum calcium concentration. Before the test is carried out, one does not need to fast or limit ones activity before the test. Rather certain medicine/drugs needed to be avoided before the test, because they might affect the test result. The result of the experiment can be calculated, since the differences in serum calcium is significance with the age differences. Those with the age bracket (50 years & above) have lesser serum calcium level than those in the range of 20 to 30 years.

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A PROJECT RESEARCH INTO SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

In our world today, the geometric increase of the population has raised alarming concerns on the food security to sustain the teeming population (Sridhar, 2007). The worse hit is developing countries in Africa, especially Nigeria that still lacks the capacity to manage food production tasks arising from the current global warming and other environmental changes. The few food products usually lack adequate proteins, essential fatty acids and vitamins leading to the common form of malnutrition in individuals.
Interestingly, unconventional legumes are promising in terms of nutrition, provisions of food security, agricultural development and in crop rotation in developing countries (Sridhar, 2007). The wild legume varieties have different quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, lipid/fatty acids and minerals.
Mucuna pruriens var.utilis is a tropical legume of the family Fabaceae and genus Mucuna. Some of its common names are Agbara (Igbo), Yerepe (Yoruba), Mauritius bean, cow itch, cow hage, Jackbohne (German). Velvet bean is an annual perennial, herbaceous, vigorous climbing vine that growso 3-18cm in height. It is indigenous of the tropical regions especially Africa, India and the West Indies. Its pods are sigmoid, turgid, longitudinally ribbed and always clustered on the stem and the pods are covered with reddish-orange hairs that dislodge readily causing intense irritation on the skin. The pods contain seeds that are black or white (Siddhuraju, 2000; Leslie, 2005; Sridhar, 2007).
The oil contents of Mucuna seed may be edible and consist of different fatty acid which is a characteristic identify of most oil seeds. The chemical composition of an oil extract gives a qualitative identification of such oil in selection of areas while it can be applied or utilized despite differences in processing and extraction of the oil (Ofoegbu, – 2006).

The aim of this work thus is to extract the oil from the white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, characterize it and determine the applicability, based on the quantities, in industries such beverage, pharmaceutical and/or soap manufacturing.

    1. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

This work was inspired by the need to find alternative sources of good oils for human utilization in industries.

    1. SCOPE OF WORK

This work is intended:

(1)     To determine the percentage of oil content of white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var.utilis

(2)     To determine the moisture contents of the seeds used

(3)     To characterize, by obtaining the physio-chemical properties of the oil

(4)     To suggest possible industry the oil can be utilized based on the results and the information provided in literature on oils.

 

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EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent (Puri, 1999). This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions. (Puri, 1999). The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations (Puri, 1999). In India, it is variously known as ‘Divine Tree’, ‘Life giving tree’, ‘Nature’s Drugstore’, ‘Village Pharmacy’ and ‘Panacea for all diseases’. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.
Extracts from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A Juss) also called ‘Dogonyaro’ in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria (Schmutterer, 1995).  All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush and the roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. (Puri, 1999). The seed of Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricant, drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis (Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996).
India encouraged scientific investigations on neem tree as part of his program to revitalise India tradition and also increase commercial interest on neem (Stix, 1992) and presently some authors believe that no other plant or tree in the world has been so extensively researched or used in all possible capacities so far. In Africa, extracts from neem leaves have provided various medicinal preparations (Ekanem, 1971; Udeinya, 1993). Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been of great benefit in human health due to its biochemical, pharmacological, and medicinal properties.
1.1       AIM OF PROJECT
Many researches have been carried out on neem plant (Azadirachta indica) and results have shown that it has both medicinal and pharmacological properties. However, there are no documented information relating the mineral properties inherent in the leaf of the plant. Consequently, this work was aimed at determining some minerals present in the water extract of neem leaf using the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis.

 

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TRACE ELEMENTS CONTENT OF NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DennettiatripetalaON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DennettiatripetalaON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

The effect of ethanol extract of Dennettiatripetala on rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride was investigated.  Ethanol extract of the plant was prepared using standard procedure. Sets of 30 female wistar albino rats were divided into 6 groups containing five animals each and were treated orally with increasing doses of ethanol extract of Dennettiatripetala for two weeks. CClwas diluted with olive oil in a 1:1 ratio and administered once by oral route at the end of the extract administration. Results from the study showed non- significant decreases in the levels of catalase and SOD activities (P>0.05) in the CCl4 group compared to the control. The extract treatment however produced a higher activity for the antioxidant enzymes compared to the CCl4treated groups. The results also showed increased levels of MDA concentration (P<0.05) in the CCl4 group whereas extract treated rats showed lower concentrations of MDA. The overall results suggests that the ethanolic extract of Dennettiatripetala may have moderate hepatoprotective effect in the CClinduced rats.

  

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

    Natural plant products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in clinical use in the world (Ben-Eric, 2002). Dennettiatripetalaalso known as pepper fruit tree is a well-known Nigerian spicy medicinal plant.  It is found in the tropical rainforest region of Nigeria and sometimes in Savanna areas (Okwu et al., 2005).  It is locally called “Nkarika” by the Efiks of Calabar.  The young leaves and fruits have distinctive spicy taste.  The mature fruits constitute the main edible portions.  Some communities in parts of Southern Nigeria also utilize the leaves and roots, in addition to the fruits for medicinal purpose. Dennettiatripetalahas been found tocontain lots of minerals, vitamins, alkaloids and trace elements which are of medicinal importance. It was also indicated that the rich presence of essential oil (oleoresins) determines the aromatic flavoring, coloring and pungent properties of pepper fruits. (Nwaoguet al., 2007) investigated phytochemical content of  Dennettiatripetala and detected the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins and cyanogenic  glycosides. The intake of flavonoids in any fruit and vegetable tends to decrease cancer risk (Neuhouser, 2004; Grafet al., 2005). Flavonoid contributes to the color of plants, their fruits and flowers. The use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine is not intended in any way to replace modern medical science but rather an aid in conventional therapy (Ben-Eric, 2002).

 

 

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EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DennettiatripetalaON LIVER AND KIDNEY ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY AND MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO CCl4.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EFFECT OF HibiscussabdariffaCALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EFFECT OF HibiscussabdariffaCALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Roselle) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams, beverages and used traditionally as a medicinal plant for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on male rat reproductive hormones. Twenty (20) male wistar rat weighing 0.25±0.2 kg   were grouped into one water control group and three experimental groups. While the water control group received 1.0 ml of water for 28 days, the experimental group were administered 250 mg/kg oral doses of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa calyx. The effect on the basal levels of follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol were conducted in experimental animals. The 28 days oral administration of aqueous extract of H.sabdariffa L. is associated with a decreased circulating plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone, Testosterone and prolactin in male wistar rat compared with the control group. The study did not show a change in the plasma levels of both circulating luteinizing hormone and estradiol following 28 days oral administration of H.sabdariffa calyx to the experimental animal. Moreover, Marked histological changes were detected on testes of the experimental animals after 28 days of administration. This may indicate that H.sadariffa calyx extract can cause both morphological and physiological testicular damage. The study concluded that H. sabdariffa calyx extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg caused mild effects on rat reproductive hormones.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that have the ability within the body to alter endocrine functions often through mimicking or blocking endogenous hormones (James et al., 2013). These actions on the endocrine system have resulted in developmental deficits in various invertebrate and aquatic species (Crain et al., 2007; Elango et al., 2006) and mammals (Christopher et al., 2012). Exposures in adulthood have consequences but fetal and early life exposures appear to have more severe effects that persist through life (Rubin and Soto, 2009). Among these classes of chemicals are phytoestrogens that show effects suggestive of estrogenicity, such as binding to the estrogen receptors, induction of specific estrogen-responsive gene products, stimulation of estrogen receptor(s) and positive breast cancer cell growth (James et al., 2013). Through these interactions by acting as agonists or antagonists, EDCs are able to alter the activity of response elements of genes, block natural hormones from binding to their receptors, or in some cases increase the perceived amount of endogenous hormone in the body by acting as a hormone mimic to its receptor (Ze-hua et al., 2010).

 

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EFFECT OF HibiscussabdariffaCALYX EXTRACTION REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES IN MALE WISTAR RAT.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE CONSITUENTS IN LEAFS AND ROOT OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA D.C. (PARADISE TREE).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE CONSITUENTS IN LEAFS AND ROOT OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA D.C. (PARADISE TREE).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

The proximate content; moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate, of Simarouba glauca were determined, along with other properties to include the glucose and amino acid contents, and the qualitative macromolecular content of the plant. The proximate properties of the plant were determined based on the A.O.A.C (1990) methods for moisture, crude protein and crude ash; A.O.A.C (1984) for crude fibre and carbohydrates; and the acid base extraction technique described by Phillips et.al. (2001). The concentration of different amino acids were determined using the ninhydrin, while the glucose content was determined Nelson-Simogy’s method. The moisture contents of the

leaves and the roots were quite high, over 60% in both. The root of the plant was also found to be rich in fibre and low in fat, meanwhile the leaves recorded a higher fat concentration than fibre. With the moisture and fibre content of the roots taking a large percentage, it was found to be pretty low in crude ash, carbohydrates, crude protein and crude fat. The leafs however was much higher in ash, carbohydrates and protein, and a little higher in fat. Among the essestial amino acids, methionine was the highest while phenyl alanine was negative. The highest amino acid was cysteine, which is a conditionally essential amino acid. From these results, it is obvious that Simarouba glauca roots and leaf extract might not enough nutritional supplements while being used medicinally. They can serve as a good source of animal feed, however, proteins and fat would need to be supplemented.

 CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Plants undergo photosynthesis and they constitute a primary resource of carbon, vitamins, minerals, protein, essential fatty acids, and utilizable energy for food production (Young and Pelett, 1994). Plants have played a significant role in maintaining the health and improving the quality of human life for thousands of years. (Mishra, 2010).  They provide a major source of food and nourishment for man and animal.

Nutrition is a science of food and its relationship to health. Nutrition refers to nourishment that sustains life. The study of nutrient requirements and the diet providing these requirements is also known as ‘nutrition’ (Chutani, 2008). Pike and Brown, 1984 defined it as “the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of living organism. It includes the uptake of food, liberation of energy, elimination of wastes and all the processes of synthesis essential for maintenance, growth and reproduction (Chutani, 2008).  Apart from maintaining normal body functioning, nutrition is important in fighting infections and in the recuperation of an ill person. Nutrition interacts with infections in a synergistic manner, such that recurrent infections lead to a loss of body nitrogen and worsen nutritional status; the resulting malnutrition, in its turn, produces a greater susceptibility to infection (Kurpad, 2005). Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was the first to suggest that the composition of foods in the normal diet might contribute to health.

 

 

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EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE CONSITUENTS IN LEAFS AND ROOT OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA D.C. (PARADISE TREE).  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A SURVEY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND MYRISTICA FRAGRANS ON STREPTOCOCUSS PNEUMONIAE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A SURVEY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND MYRISTICA FRAGRANS ON STREPTOCOCUSS PNEUMONIAE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and the seeds of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were screened for their antibacterial activity and phytochemical constituents. The standard methods used to detect the phytochemicals present in the extracts revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and phytosterols in all the extracts while steroids and amino acids were absent. The antibacterial evaluation of the spice extracts using agar plate-well diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques showed thatthere was no significant difference in the activity of the spice extracts (p > 0.05) against the test organisms (Streptococcus pneumoniaeand Pseudomonas aeruginosa, clinical bacterial isolates). Ampiclox and chloramphenicol were used as control for the test organisms to provide approximate basis for the comparison of the activity of the extracts. The MIC and MBC was the same for all the extracts against S. pneumoniae, 6.25 mg/ml while 25 mg/ml for thyme extracts, and 50 mg/ml for nutmeg extracts against P. aeruginosa, showing the extracts to be bactericidal.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                 INTRODUCTION

The spread of drug-resistant pathogens is one of the most serious threats to public health in the 21st century.Although pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms still remains. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents (Cohen, 1992). Such a fact is a cause for concern, because of the number of patients in hospitals who have suppressed immunity, and due to new bacterial strains that are multi-drug resistant. Consequently, new infections can occur in hospitals resulting in high mortality as observed by Montelli and Levy (1991).

The use of herbs as first medicines is a universal phenomenon. For a long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, especially in the last decade, with more intensive studies for natural therapies. Most drugs of the past were substances with a particular therapeutic action extracted from plants. Thus, medicinal plants may be defined as any plant that can be put to culinary use such as onions, fox glove, garlic and ginger (Wainright, 2001). More and more researchers find that food and their individual constituents perform similar fashion to modern drugs and sometimes better without the dreaded side effects (Serrentino, 1991).

 

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A SURVEY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND MYRISTICA FRAGRANS ON STREPTOCOCUSS PNEUMONIAE AND PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AS AN INDICATOR OF FAECAL POLLUTION IN STREAMS ON OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY (O.A.U) CAMPUS, ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AS AN INDICATOR OF FAECAL POLLUTION IN STREAMS ON OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY (O.A.U) CAMPUS, ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

                                    INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.0       Introduction

Water is a natural resource and is essential to sustain life. Accessibility and availability of fresh clean water does not only play a crucial role in economic development and social welfare (Odonkorand Ampofo,2013) but also, it is an indispensable liquid. Many do not have access to safe and clean water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections.Hence, having it available in sufficient quantity and quality contributes to the maintenance of health (Nougang et al., 2011).According to WHO (2004), about 80% of all diseases and over one third of deaths in developing countries are caused by drinking contaminated water.

Water is essential to human life, for basic health and survival, as well as food production and economic activities. Presently, theworld is facing a global emergency in which over one billion people lack access to a basic supply of clean water and over 2billion do not have access to adequate sanitation which is the primary cause of waterborne disease (WHO, 2003).Water aids in digestion and is essential in almost all other body processes. It makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, there is no life. The human brain is made up of 95% water, blood is 82%, and lungs 90%.Water helps in maintaining the moisture of internal organs of the body, the normal volume and consistency of fluids such as blood and lymph as wellas in the regulation of body temperature, removal ofpoisons or toxins from the body through urine, sweat and breathing; and the regulation of the normal structure and functions of the skin. The body loses about four litres of water every day. It is therefore necessary to replenish this volume daily by drinking at least the equivalent amount of quality water. In developing countries with deteriorating environments, the demand for clean drinking water supply is growing rapidly in recent times(Odonkor and Ampofo,2013).

 

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AS AN INDICATOR OF FAECAL POLLUTION IN STREAMS ON OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY (O.A.U) CAMPUS, ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A CRITICAL STUDY ON ENZYMES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

A CRITICAL STUDY ON ENZYMES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 Enzyme

Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for thousands of chemical inter-conversions that sustain life (Smith, 1997). All known enzymes are proteins. They are high molecular weight compounds made up principally of chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds, they are denatured at high temperature and precipitated with salts, solvents and other reagents. They have molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 2,000,000 units. Enzymes do not cause reactions to take place, but rather they enhance the rate of reactions that would have been slower without their presence and still remains unused and unchanged.

Many enzymes require the presence of other compounds – cofactors – before their catalytic activity can be exerted. This entire active complex is referred to as the holoenzyme; i.e. apoenzyme (protein portion) plus the cofactor (coenzyme, prosthetic group or metal-ionactivator) is called the holoenzyme (Alexopoulos et al., 1996)

The living cell is the site of tremendous biochemical activity called metabolism. It is the process of chemical and physical change which goes on continually in the living organism involving the build-up of new tissues, replacement of old tissue, conversion of food to energy, disposal of waste materials, reproduction – all the activities that we characterize as “life.”Thephenomenon of enzyme catalysis makes possible biochemical reactions necessary for all life processes. Catalysis is defined as the acceleration of a chemical reaction by some substance which itself undergoes no permanent chemical change. Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme like catalysis (Grovesm, 1997).

The catalysts of biochemical reactions are enzymes and are responsible for bringing about almost all of the chemical reactions in living organisms. Without enzymes, these reactions take place at a rate far too slow for the pace of metabolism(Bairoch, 2000).

Enzymes actually work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. This is achieved when it creates an alternative pathway which is faster for the reaction hence speeding it up such that products are formed faster. Enzyme catalysed reactions are million times faster than uncatalysed reactions, they alter the rates but not the equilibrium constant of the reaction being catalysed (Ashokkumar et al., 2001). A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyse reactions, with an important example being some parts of ribosome (Lilley, 2005).

 

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A CRITICAL STUDY ON ENZYMES.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

 

The study for the production of protease from Aspergillus flavus using wheat bran as substrate under Solid State Fermentation was conducted in University of Abuja, Department of Microbiology. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from spoilt bread and was identified on the basis of the morphological assessment such as macroscopic and microscopy. Among the characteristics used includes: colonial characteristics such surface appearance, texture and colour of the colonies. The protease activity increased with increase in the fermentation periods. The quantities of the protease enzyme produced by the Aspergillus flavus in the basal medium were measured using UV-Spectrophotometer and the result is shown in Table 5. The protease activity was found to be higher at day 7 than day 5 and 3 with 4.51±10.06 proteaase Unit/mL, 8.63±0.12 U/mL and 18.93±1.20 AU/mL respectively. the extracellular protease produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt bread in Gwagwalada were not significantly different at P= 0.05 level of significance. The study demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus was able to produce extracellular protease enzymes important in the decomposition of protein materials.

 

 

                                      CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                                    INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Protease constitutes a large and complex group of enzymes that plays an  important nutritional and  regulatory  role in nature. Proteases are (physiologically) necessary for  living organisms; they are ubiquitous and found in a wide diversity of sources. Protease is the most important industrial enzyme of interest accounting for about 60% of the total enzyme market in the world  and  account  for approximately 40% of  the total worldwide enzyme sale (Godfrey and West, 1996; Chouyyok et al., 2005). They are generally used in detergents (Barindra et al., 2006), food industries, leather, meat processing, cheese making, silver recovery from photographic film, production of digestive and certain medical treatments of inflammation and virulent wounds (Rao et al., 1998; Paranthaman et al., 2009). They also have medical and pharmaceutical applications.

Microbial  proteases  are  degradative  enzymes  which catalyze the total hydrolysis of proteins (Raju et al., 1994; Haq et al., 2006). The molecular weight of proteases ranges from 18 – 90 kDa  (Sidney and Lester, 1972). These enzymes are found in a wide diversity of sources such as plants, animals and microorganisms but they are mainly produced by bacteria and fungi. Microbial proteases are predominantly extracellular and can be secreted in the fermentation medium.

 

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PRODUCTION OF PROTEASE BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ASSESSMENT OF NUNU PRODUCED USING PURE STARTER CULTURE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ASSESSMENT OF NUNU PRODUCED USING PURE STARTER CULTURE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

Nunu is Nigerian locally fermented milk product commonly prepared by Hausa/Fulani cattle rearers. It’s mostly available in the Northern part of Nigeria. It’s production and consumption derives food security and economic benefits to the rural people in the region. However, the process characteristics results in products which are not appealing to many people. Lactic acid bacteria are mostly associated with the production of fermented milk products. They play key role in producing desirable flavour, aroma and good physical appearance in fermented milk products. Isolation and identification of LAB from nunu of spontaneous fermentation was carried out and labeled LAB 1-LAB 4. An assessement of the organoleptic property, pH, shelf-life and overall acceptability was determined. After 24 hours of fermentation, a general decrease in pH was observed. The pH ranged between 5.58 – 6.29. Nunu samples fermented with mixed starter culture,  LAB 1+2, had the best sensory evaluation described as ; fermented, sour, characteristic of the nunu, pleasant, soft, smooth, semi- solid, viscous and with the highest overall acceptability of 7 on the hedonic scale. While nunu fermented with Lab3 and Lab 2+3 had a sensory evaluation of being umami, milk, rough, not pleasant aroma and gritty with an overall acceptability of  2 on the hedonic scale. The nunu sample produced stored in refrigerator had a shelf-life of 6 days while the sample stored at room temperature (28±2oC ) had a shelf-life of 3 days.

  

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Nunu is a spontaneously fermented milk (yoghurt-like) product in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa including Ghana and Burkina Faso. Unlike other African fermented milk products where milk of goats, sheep, and camels is used, Nunu is solely prepared from cow milk. The traditional processing of Nunu involves collecting fresh cow milk into containers and then allowing it to ferment for a day or two days at ambient temperature. Nunu is yoghurt-like in taste (a sharp acid taste) and it can be taken alone or with Fura (Owusu-Kwarteng et al., 2012; Akabanda et al., 2013). Like many other spontaneously fermented foods in  Africa, the production of Nunu is largely home-based and the fermentation is spontaneous. Thus, starter cultures are not available, but old stocks of previous ferments and fermentation containers are used to initiate fermentation in new batches. The dependence on such undefined and diverse microbial consortium during Nunu fermentation may result in product of variable quality and stability.

Currently, there is no information on the use of starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. However, few investigations have been carried out on the microbiology of Ghanaian traditionally fermented milk products (Obodai and Dodd,2006; Akabanda et al., 2010). The predominant microorganisms isolated from this traditionally fermented milk should be developed into starter cultures that could be used to produce fermented milk products of consistent quality and consumer acceptability. Thus, it should be possible to improve the quality and consumer acceptability of Nunu through controlled fermentation using starter culture.

 

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ASSESSMENT OF NUNU PRODUCED USING PURE STARTER CULTURE.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN SOLD IN GWAGWALADA MARKET.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN SOLD IN GWAGWALADA MARKET.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT

Twenty samples of frozen chicken from five different sellers were analyzed to determine their bacteriological load; the samples were collected from Gwagwalada market. All the frozen chicken samples from the five sellers examined were contaminated with some bacterial species namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphyloccus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total bacteria counts for all the chicken examined from the different sellers was in the range of 0.7 × 102

cfu/ml to 8.5 × 102 cfu/ml and the coliform counts obtained for all the chicken samples ranged from 0.1 × 10cfu/ml to 3.2 × 102 cfu/ml. These finding suggest that most of the frozen chicken parts stored in the open market may constitute sources of bacterial food poisoning consequently public health hazard.

  

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                 INTRODUCTION

The first consumer right is to have a product of good quality and not constituting any health hazard. Poultry meat products are highly desirable, palatable, digestible and nutritious for all ages. Poultry meat is comprised of about 20–23% protein, other are water and fat, phosphorus, iron and vitamins. Comminuted products, such as frankfurters, bologna and sausages typically contain about 17–20% protein, 0–20% fat, and 60–80% water (Smith, 2001).Quality products are those that meet some need or expectation of consumers and are safe and wholesome as well. (Sahooet al., 1996).The microbiological safety and quality of poultry meat are equally important to producers, retailers and consumers. Two quite different groups of microorganisms are relevant: on the one hand certain foodborne pathogens, and, on the other, organisms that are generally harmless to human health, but, being psychrotrophic, are able to multiply on the product during chill storage. Spoilage results mainly from off- odour development, and product shelf-life is determined both by the number of spoilage organisms present initially and the temperature history of the product at all stages of production and subsequent storage and handling (Pooni and Mead, 1984). For chill- stored poultry, Viehweget al. (1989) demonstrated that virtually all the odorous substances found at spoilage could be attributed to microbial growth and metabolism. Contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens remains an important public health issue, because it can lead to illness if there are malpractices in handling, cooking or post-cooking storage of the product.

Fresh (uncooked) foods such as chicken carries natural microflora that may contain organisms potentially harmful to humans. The microbial flora of table poultry is largely confined to the skin surface or visceral cavity. Isolates from poultry and poultry products could include members of the following general Enterobacter, Alcaligenes, Escherichia,Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Proteus,Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Corynebacteriumand Salmonella. (Frazier and Westhoff,1988).

 

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BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN SOLD IN GWAGWALADA MARKET.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANALYSIS THE ALPHA-PROTEIN LEVEL IN HEPATITIS PATIENT AS AN AID IN ACCESSING THE DEGREE IN WHICH IT GENERATES TO HCC.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

ANALYSIS THE ALPHA-PROTEIN LEVEL IN HEPATITIS PATIENT AS AN AID IN ACCESSING THE DEGREE IN WHICH IT GENERATES TO HCC.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. It accounts for 60% of all cancer world wide (Melissa 2004). The most significance cause is the presence of cirrhosis. HCC has unique geographic sex, age distribution that are likely determined by specific actiology factor. It’s distribution also varies  among ethnic group within the same country (Munoz 1989). A high incidence of hepatitis B and C may have been an important factor contributing to the development of liver disease (HCC and Cirrhosis) in south eastern Nigeria. However, a recent trend which reveals an increase in cases of liver cirrhosis and hepatitis in our environment suggest that there could be other contributory factors perculiar to our environment besides hepatitis B and C which could be possible explanation to the recent trend. In so doing, it would be necessary to look into the various predisposing/causative factors of chronic hepatitis which could lead to increased cases of liver cirrhosis and HCC in our environment. The risk of developing HCC differs depending on the cause of cirrhosis. For example, cirrhosis due to hepatitis B has a high risk of leading to HCC while the risk of HCC in people with primary biliary cirrhosis, although present is very low. All these human hepatitis viruses are RNA viruses except for hepatitis B virus, which is a DNA virus. Although these viruses can be distinguished by their molecular and antigenic properties, all types of viral hepatitis produce clinically similar illnesses. These range from asymptomatic and unapparent to fulminant and fatal acute infections common to all types, on one hand, and from subclinical persistent infections to rapidly progressive liver disease with cirrhosis and even hepatocullular carcinoma (HCC), common to the blood-borne types (HBV and HCV). Without specific virological test, it is not possible to determine which hepatitis virus is responsible for a case of hepatitis. (Kathleen park et al., 2004).

 

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ANALYSIS THE ALPHA-PROTEIN LEVEL IN HEPATITIS PATIENT AS AN AID IN ACCESSING THE DEGREE IN WHICH IT GENERATES TO HCC.  A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHLORIS GAYANA KUNTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHLORIS GAYANA KUNTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Plants have formed the basis of traditional medicine system which has been used for thousands of years. Traditional medicine refers to health practices,  approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat or to diagnose and prevent illnesses  or  maintain well being (World Health Organization, 2003). In developing countries where orthodox medicines are quite expensive, traditional medicine is widely practiced thus, screening for antimicrobial active compounds from ethno medicinal plants is vital so as to ascertain genuine active plants and active compounds. Ultimately, these phytochemicals will find their way into the arsenal of antimicrobial drugs prescribed by physicians (Cowan, 1999). Plants have been one of the main sources of medicaments either in the form of traditional preparations or pure active principles since the dawn of the human civilization. The utilization of plant based drugs in the world is flourishing and ever increasing. India has a wealthy ancestry of science on plant based drugs both for use in remedial and preventive medicine. Charaka S amhita reports the use of nearly 2000 vegetable remedies against various diseases. Nearly 60% of all pharmaceuticals are plant based. 300000 plants have already been explored for their medicinal properties. Every culture, including western culture has evolved indigenous system of traditional healing. Traditional healing in different cultures has a long history of ancestors creating primitive medicine during their struggle against natural calamities and diseases. Equally while searching for food; the ancient humans discovered that some foods have specific properties of relieving or eliminating certain diseases and maintaining good health. In recent years, secondary plant metabolites have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. It is anticipated that phytochemicals with good antibacterial activity will be used for the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. During the last two decades, there has been a considerable increase in the study and use of medicinal plants all over the world, especially in advanced countries. There was also a tremendous increase in the international trade and commercial exploitation of herbal medicines over the counter labeled products. In some countries, herbal medicines are still a central part of the medical system e.g. China, Ethiopia, Argentina and Papua New Guinea

 

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EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHLORIS GAYANA KUNTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY