1.1 Background of study
As a result of limited resources, consumers weigh many aspects of a product to determine if such a product is worth the pains of expenditure. Such aspects include; the price of the product, its relative advantage over other products, its quality and quantity to determine how such product can serve large-sized families. The hardship encountered in Nigeria society today, can even make some families to decide to stop taking their usual Peak Milk menu till the economy improves. However, advertising is a persuasive form of communication, which most times trigger the urge to buy goods and services irrespective of the amount in the pockets. Some consumers are also loyalists to certain goods and services, and so, hardly do without them.
Radio advertising has the peculiar advantage of communicating using different languages and other dialects. As such, these messages are quickly appreciated. Advertising helps to announce the existence of a product or service and the strategies in using them. However, radio stations advertise a wide range of products in order to satisfy their many clients. This means that the manner and creativity used in communicating some products may determine to what extent the consumers may seek these products over others.
Advertising and communication go hand in hand because it is a form of communication. According to Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) advertisement is defined as a communication in the media paid for by an identified sponsor and directed at a target audience with the aim of imparting information about a product, service, idea or cause.According to Bovee (1992) advertising is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. You cannot talk about advertising without talking of the media or channels for it. Advertising agencies and the mass media need each other to survive as advertisements cannot go viral for the public to patronize the products without the mass media while mass media cannot last long without funds got from the advertisements. These various media include television, radio, newspaper, magazines, etc.
According to Okunna (2012), radio is an audio medium for communication. As a medium, it has the capacity to cut through the barriers of illiteracy and poor infrastructural facilities which could limit the ability of other media channels to reach large audiences. Radio is by far the most widely used mass medium because it has some peculiar qualities such as:
Being relatively cheap, can be operated without electricity and it is easily portable and used by both the educated and illiterate.
Have you been driving along the road and found yourself humming to a radio jingle? That’s radio advertising at work. Radio advertising is when advertisers buy commercials frequently called spots in the radio industry, to promote their products and services. Advertisers pay commercial radio stations for airtime and in exchange the radio station broadcasts the advertiser’s commercial to its listeners. The broadcast of commercials on radio needs real feel orientation and voice is the single major determinant that draws the attention of listeners.
The history of radio advertising can be traced back to the 20th century, where radio equipment manufacturers and retailers operated most radio stations, and used them primarily to promote radio sales, rather than to profit. Radio stations at the time were seen more as an investment to entice households to purchase radios, and less as a standalone revenue stream.
Between 1919 and 1922, radio stations began to ramp up their offerings, and it became the norm to broadcast continuously. Station owners began obtaining business licenses and seeking ways to make the medium self-sufficient. Thus, radio advertising came to be.
The first recognized form of radio advertising came in early 1922 when AT&T began to sell toll broadcasting opportunities, in which businesses could underwrite or finance a broadcast in return for having their brand mentioned on air. Later that year, the New York radio station WEAF was the first station to run an official paid advertisement. These forms of radio advertising become more and more popular, leading stations into the golden age of radio.
For radio advertising to take place, the target audience which is the ‘consumer’ must be considered. Therefore, a consumer is a person who buys goods and uses it for services. Consumer behavior is the process whereby individuals decide what, when, where, how and from whom to purchase goods and services (Walters and Paul).Buying and selling are activities individuals can never stop doing. Buying is one of the actions of any individual when going to purchase something. The process they use to select and choose any products and services are known as buying behavior of that individual.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. All mammals, including humans, normally produce milk to feed their offspring until they are ready for solid food.
Peak Milk is a milk product manufactured by ‘Wamco Nigeria plc’. It has been in existence since 1954 till date. Peak has been described as “a truly Nigerian iconic brand” as the brand marks its 60 years in the dairy market. WAMCO’s Managing Director, Mr. Rahul Colaco expressed appreciation of Nigerians’ loyalty to Peak milk and “particularly those who have come from far and near for the celebration of 60 years of nourishing Nigeria with quality dairy nutrition.” Peak milk comes in different sizes and assortments such as Peak evaporated Milk, Milk Powder,Choco, Peak UHT full cream. Peak evaporated milk comes in different sizes; Peak regular, Peak easy, Peak gold, Peak wazobia. Its nutritional value includes ; whole cow’s milk, stabilizer E339, with added vitamin B12+folic acid, iodine, vitamins A, D3, B1 and B6. Other milk products in competition with peak milk are: Three crowns milk, Oldenburgher Milk powder, Dano milk, Hollandia Milk, Cowbell Milk, Juno Milk, Kerrygold instant full cream milk powder, etc.
Consumers’ buying behavior is one of the processes of decision-making of any buyer both individually and in groups such as how emotions affect buying behavior. The buying behavior of a consumer changes according to different conditions such as demographic, culture, tradition, climate, etc.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There is an increase in the production of other milk products and the competition between Peak Milk and others is rapid. Statistics have proven that milk is an essential and more available food for growth. Children, young people and adults are respectively advised to take milk.Evidence from literature shows that there is no consistent pattern of milk consumption in Enugu state. As a result, it is not clear if consumers buy milk based on the ones they see, the prices or if they are indeed motivated by radio advertising. It is this lack of clear understanding of the role of radio advertising in relation to other variables like cost, availability in the consumption of Peak milk thatthis study seeks to find out if radio advertising influences consumer patronage of Peak Milk.Can radio advertising influence the buying of Peak milk in as much the price is higher than other milk products?